Geoffrey Timeline as of 2020

Dates Pertaining to King Arthur, Geoffrey of Monmouth, & his contemporaries

b =                   born   

d =                   dies                 

m =                  marries

R =                  begins reign

illegit =           child of Henry I unless otherwise specified

EMP =             Matilda Empress                    

blue =              royalty in Britain

red =                Geoffrey bio, Geoffrey interpolations in history are indented

green =            literature, history, theology, philosophy, arts, music, architecture, written laws

purple =           major events              

orange =          notes to me for additions, corrections

Historical contexts: the Bible and the Aeneid

6,000 BC         end of Doggerland and land bridge between Ireland-Britain

3,300 BC         Bluestones quarried from Preseli Hills, Wales

                        stone circle built nearby

3,000 BC         Stonehenge built, first circle of the same bluestones which had been quarried in

– 2,500 BC                  Wales and had stood in a stone circle already; possibly migrating people

                                    Stonehenge reconfigured several times, large stones added

1,250 BC         Trojan War

?                                  Brutus, great-grandson of Aeneas, unintentionally fulfills prophecy that he                                      will kill his father (Silvius) by shooting him while hunting; exiled; finds                                             Trojan survivors who are slaves; frees them and sails off; prophecy by                                         Diana promises him a deserted island in the West; travels across                                                     Mediterranean and across France and settles in Britain,

                                    (Geoffrey builds on Gildas, Nennius, Bede for Britain desc)

                                    Brutus builds city of “New Troy” Trinovantum (London)

                                    (Trojan language is “crooked Greek” British, Cymraeg = crooked Greek)

                                    (Nennius, possibly the writer of the Historia Britonnum, includes Brutus)

                                    Corineus and Goemagog,

                                    (In Vergil’s Aeneid Corynaeus is companion of Aeneas, known for fury)

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time:

                                    Brutus was in Britain = Eli was in Judea = Ark of the Covenant was                                               captured by Philistines = Hector’s sons were in Troy

                                    = Italy was ruled by Silvius Aeneas (Brutus’ uncle)

                                    Britain divided by Brutus’s 3 sons

                                    King Locrinus = Loegria,

                                    Kamber = Wales,

                                    Albanactus = Albania (Scotland)

                                    Humber, king of Huns, kills Albanactus

                                    King Locrinus picks up mistress Estrildis and marries Corineus’ daughter                                         Guendoloena

                                    Corineus dies

                                    Locrinus repudiates Guendoloena

                                    Guendoloena gets army, defeats Locrinus, drowns Guendoloena and                                                daughter Habren

                                    Queen Guendoloena rules wells until son Maddan old enough

                                    King Maddan – 2 sons

                                    Mempricius kills Malim during negotiations; despot, sodomist; leaves his                                        hunting companions as he enters a valley where he is devoured by a pack                                   of ravening wolves.

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time:

1046c                          King Mempricius rule = Saul in Judea (1046c)  = Euristeus in Sparta

                                    King Ebraucus, takes fleet to Gaul and is victorious, builds cities of                                                  Kaerebrauc, Dumbarton, Mount Agned (Edinburgh), Mons Dolorosus,                                                  fathers 50 kids

                                    daughters m to Trojan nobles in Italy; inc Innogin, Guenlian, Nest

                                    sons with Roman Silvius Alba conquer Germany

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time:

                                    David ruling Judea = Silvius Latinus ruling Rome = Gad, Nathan, Asaph                                         prophets in Israel

                                    King Brutus Greenshield

                                    King Leil, loves peace and justice, but neglectful so at the end of long                                              reign civil war, builds Carlisle           

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time = Solomon & Queen of Sheba

                                    King Rud Hudibras, pacified subjects, builds Kaekein (Canterbury),                                               Kaerguint (Winchester), Mons Paladur (Shaftesbury)

                                    “While the city-wall was being constructed there, an eagle spoke; and if I                                       thought that its prophecies were true, I would not hesitate to set them                                         down here with the rest.”

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time:                                     

                                    Capys, son of Epitus, reigned  = prophets Haggai, Amos, Jehu, Joel,                                               Azariah

                                    King Bladud, builds Kaerbadum (Bath) made baths which he puts under                                        the protection of Minerva. “Baldud . . . taught magic throughout the                                           kingdom. . . . He did not cease to work wonders until he tried to fly                                                through the air on wings he had made; he fell over the temple of Apollo in                                                 Trinovantum and was completely dashed to pieces.”

                                    King Leir, builds Kaerleir (Leicester), when old decides to divide his                                               kingdom between his 3 daughters and give them husbands. Instead he                                                divides it in half between Gonorilla (Maglaunus of Scotland) and Regau                                        (Henuinus of Cornwall) because they flatter him with lies about their                                             love for him. Cordeilla, testing him, says  “you are worth what you have,                                       and that much I love you.” The king of the French marries Cordeilla with                                       no dowry. Leir’s two daughters deprive him of his kingdom and his                                                knights. Leir travels to France, sends note to Cordeilla, she sends money                                            for him to outfit himself appropriately, then he is welcomed to the court                                                  of the French king. French king provides army which Leir and Cordeilla                                        take to Britain, beat the others, and let Leir rule until he dies 3 years later.                                      French king dies. Cordeilla rules Britain. Her nephews “resented a                                              woman having power over Britain,” attack and imprison her, and she                                              commits suicide over the loss of her kingdom.

                                    Marganus and Cunedagius divide kingdom, fight each other

                                    King Cunedagius*, rules in splendor            

                                    Geoffrey says that at the same time:

753 BC April 21         prophets Isaiah and Hosea = Rome founded by Romulus and Remus

750c BC          Homer writes the Odyssey and the Iliad

8th cen BC      Hallstatt kingdoms in eastern Alps and middle Danube;

                        Tartessian culture and language in south-western Iberia

680 c               Oldest dated features of Emain Macha (Navan Fort, Northern Ireland)

600 c               Massalia founded by Greeks from Phocaea;

                        Keltoi living on northern shores of Mediterranean

6th cen            Hill forts in Bohemia, Massalian trading posts on the Mediterranean; Lepontic, a                           Celtic language, spoken in northern Italy and the Alps

late 6th cen      princely residences in Burgundy, Marne, Rhineland; Massalian and Greek wine                            imported to central Gaul

500 c               Carthaginian navigators reach equatorial West Africa and North Atlantic coasts

5th cen            La Tène culture from Balkans to eastern Gaul; hill forts in southern Gaul, open                             settlements in the north

early 4th cen   Gaulish migrations to northern Italy and to lands in and beyond the Hercynian                               Forest 

?                                  King Rivallo*, rules kingdom well; rains blood for 3 days and people die

some                              from a plague of flies

kings                           King Gorgustius*

may                             King Sisillius*            * = name from Welsh genealogy

have                            King Iago*

ruled                            King Kinmarcus*

simultaneously            King Gorbodugo*; son Porrex* kills Ferreux* over succession; mom                                               Iudon rips Porrex apart while he sleeps; civil strife; 5 kings

                                    Dunuallo Molmutius (Dunvallo), son of King Cloten of Cornwall,

                                      kills other kings to rule Britain

                                      estab Molmutine laws “which are still renowned even today                                                            among the English. Amongst other enactments recorded much later by St                                     Gildas, he ordained that the temples of the gods and the cities should be                                              treated with such respect that any fugitive or criminal who fled to them                                          should be allowed to depart with a full pardon from his enemies. He                                           further ordained that the roads leading to the temples and cities and also                                            farmers’ ploughlands should enjoy the same privilege.”

                                      buried in Trinvantum near temple of Harmony, Temple of Concord

                                    (Welsh Law Tracts: Cumngual Moilmut, lawyer, “1st to measure the                                                island of Britain accurately in order to provide an accurate measure of                                                 travel time from point to point and to set accurate taxation.” Curley                                       Perhaps Geoffrey’s knowledge of him was oral. Roberts)

                                    Beli (Belinus) gets Loegria, Wales, and Cornwall

                                    King Brennius gets Northumbria from the Humber to Caithness, subject to                                      his brother. Brennius’s flatterers twist his mind, so he sails to Norway                                                and marries the king’s daughter. Belinus angry and attacks Northumbria.                                        Brennius sails from Norway, met by Guichtlacus king of the Danes who                                        wants Brennius’s wife. Guichtlacus captures ship with wife on it. Storm.                                         Guichtlacus ends up in Northumbria. Brennius lands in Scotland. Battle,                                               Belinus wins. Brennius ends up in France. Belinus takes over all of                                                Britain. Brennius ends up at court of Seginus, king of the Allobroges.                                               Brennius was “handsome, of tall and slender build and well versed in                                                hunting and hawking.” Brennius marries Seginus’s daughter. Seginus                                             dies; Brennius now king. Takes army to Britain. Mom Tonwenna bares                                          her breasts to him, sobbing that she endured pain for him. Her plea now                                         is that he caused his problems with his brother and that he is now a king                                         on his own. (Issue of primogeniture)

                                    Brothers become friends. Decide to conquer France. Then Rome.                                                    They take over Rome. Brennius stays to oppress the Romans.

396                  Destruction of settlement on site of future Mediolanum (Milan)

390 BC July 18 Brennus of Senones (tribe in Gaul) defeats Romans at Battle of the Allia

                                    Geoffrey would know of him through reading Orosius        

387 BC            Brennus leads Cisalpine Gauls to attack and capture most of Rome for 18 mos

350                  Aristotle, Meteorology: klimata and zodiacal circle

335                  Celtic envoys meet Alexander the Great in Macedonia

331                  lunar eclipse observed at Arbela, Syracuse, and Carthage

325 c               voyage of Pytheas of Massalia

310-260s         Belgic tribes arrive in northern Gaul from Germany and Central Europe

300 c               Euclid’s Elements; invention of the dioptra; definition of meridians and parallels                            by Dicaearchus

280 c               Battle of Ribemon-sur-Ancre; Celts invade Illyricum, Pannonia, Macedonia; first                          coins minted in Gaul (principally Arvernian)

279                  Celtic army plunders Delphi

278                  Gauls cross the Hellespont; Tolistobogii, Trocmii, and Volcae Tectosages settle in                        Galatia

240 c               Eratosthenes calculates circumference of earth; invention of solstitial armillary                              sphere

225                  Battle of Telamon (Tuscany); defeat of Celtic coalition by Rome

218                  Hannibal marches from Spain to Italy;

                        September = crossing of the Rhone

                        November = crossing of the Alps

?                                  King Belinus (continued) repairs British cities, builds Demetia/Kaerusk                                           (Caerleon), gate in Trinovantum called Billingsgate with a huge tower                                        above and port, justice, riches, his ashes are placed in golden vessel on                                                   top of the huge tower (tower, ashes, vessel predate both the obelisk that                                         contains Julius Caesar’s ashed in the Circus of Nero and Trajan’s Column                             which contained bones of Trajan in golden urn, both known to 12th c                                                   pilgrims)

                                    King Gurguint Barbtruc, lover of peace & justice; when Danes refuse to                                           pay tribute, King Gurguint subjects them to terrible defeats and returns                                                 the country to servitude sailing home through the Orkneys, comes across                                         ships of Basques who’ve been expelled from Spain. Gurguint sends them,                                      with guides, to Ireland “an island at that time devoid of inhabitants.”

                                    King Guithelinus, kindness and moderation

                                      wife is Marcia, “skilled in all the arts. Among the many novelties devised                                      by this intelligent woman was the law which the British called Marcian.                                                 This and much else was translated by King Alfred, who named it                                                   Merchenelage in English.” Guithelinus died when son Sisillius was 10                                           years old.

                                      (name from Nennius)

                                    Queen Marcia “his able and intelligent mother therefore came to rule the                                          whole island”

                                    King Sisillius

                                    King Kimarus

                                    King Danius

                                    King Morvidus by Danius’ concubine Tangustela. “his excessive cruelty:                                         once roused, he would ruthlessly kill anybody if he could lay his hands                                             on a weapon. He was handsome, a generous giver of gifts and so strong                                        that no one in the kingdom could overcome him.” Flemings attack;                                                 Morvidus beats them, then kills them separately. “In the midst of these                                               and similar acts of cruelty he suffered a misfortune which put an end to                                               his wickedness. A beast of incredible ferocity came from the region of                                           the Irish sea and began to devour without respite those living near the                                                 coast. When reports of this reached Morvidus’ ears, he came in person                                                  and fought against it single-handed. But when he had used up all his                                               missiles on it without effect, the monster rushed up and swallowed him                                            in its open jaws like a little fish.”

                                    King Gorbonianus (brothers: Arthgallo, Elidurus, Iugenius, Peredurus)

                                      (names Arthgallo, Iugenius from Welsh genealogies)                    

                                      shows honor to gods; justice and equity to his people; rich reign

                                      encouraged farmers; protected them from unjust masters

                                    King Arthgallo — opposite of Gorbonianus; deprived of throne       

                                    King Elidurus — gave crown back to Arthgallo

                                    King Arthgallo (continued) — fair and just the second time

                                    King Elidurus (continued) overthrown by Iugenius and Peredurus; divide                                         country

                                    King Peredurus (Iugenius died) — kindness and moderation

                                    King Elidurus (continued) — goodness and justice the third time

                                    King Regin (same family) — good sense and wisdom

                                    King Marganus (same family) — ruled in peace

                                    King Enniaunus (same family) — tyrant, deposed

                                    King Iduallo (same family) — lawful and right

                                      (name from Welsh genealogies)

                                    King Runo (same family)

                                    King Gerontius (same family)

                                    King Catellus (same family)

                                    King Coillus (same family)

                                    King Porrex (same family)

                                    King Cherin (same family)

                                    King Fulgenius (same family)

                                    King Eldadus (same family)

                                    King Andragius (same family)

                                    King Eliud

                                    King Cledaucus

                                    King Clotenus

                                    King Gurgintius

                                    King Merianus

                                    King Bledudo

                                    King Cap

                                    King Oenus

                                    King Sisillius

                                    King Bledgabred, “He surpassed all previous singers in melody and in                                              playing all musical instruments to such an extent that he was called the                                        performers’ god.”

                                    King Arthmail

                                    King Eldol (name from Nennius)

                                    King Redion

                                    King Rederchius

                                    King Samuil Penissel

                                    King Pir

                                    King Capoir

197                  Eastern and southern Iberia divided into two Roman provinces, Hispania Citerior                          (nearer) and Hispania Ulterior (further)

196-189           Rome conquers Celtic northern Italy (later, the province of Gallia Cisalpina)

187                  completion of Via Aemilia

182-133           Celtiberian wars

181                  Massalia appeals to Rome for help against Ligurian pirates

180 c               Oppida in central Germany, Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary

175-150 c        Gundestrup Cauldron

150 c               Hipparches calculates klimata and meridians; Antihythera Mechanism; Polybius                           travels through southern Gaul

150 BC            Winchester hill fort and trading center of Celtic Belgae tribe

?                                  King Cligueillus, moderate and fair, possibly Hywel Dda (950, known for                                        law)

                                    King Heli

146                  Fall of Carthage

133                  Siege and destruction of Numantia

130 c               German oppida in Basel, Berne, Breisach, Bad Neuheim, Manching, more

125-121           Roman conquest of southern Gaul

124 BC            Continental trade increases in Britain after Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul

                        settlements oppida moving from high ground to along waterways

123                  Roman garrison at Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence)

?                                  King Lud, repaired walls of Trinovantum and added towers, warrior, feast-                                      giver; city later renamed Kaerlud (Kaerlundein to Lundene to Lundres to                                             London). He was buried beside gate called Porhlud (Ludgate).

58-49 BC        Commentarii de Bello Gallico Caesar’s Gallic Wars Geoffrey used

?                                  King Cassibellaunus internationally known for generosity and goodness

56 BC              Brits aid Veneti of Armorica against Julius Caesar

?                                  Julius Caesar writes Cassibellaunus demanding taxes and submission

                                      Cassibellaunus responds that Britons are free and same pedigree as                                                 Romans

                                    Britons fight Romans; Julius Caesar’s sword gotten; Romans flee

55 BC              Julius Caesar = Roman raids

                        bet Britain & Gaul, Parisi in York gave name to Paris, Belgae in Britain

                        political & military intermingling across Channel bothers Rome

                        Caesar wants Britain’s natural resources; it produced surplus crop yields

                                    mining: tin, iron, lead (except tin from Spain became cheaper)

                                    also: cattle, hides, slaves, dogs

                                    Catuvellani mint coins decorated with ears of corn

                        Britons import glassware, pottery, jewelry with amber and ivory

                        British horse-drawn chariots put Roman legions at disadvantage

                        Romans have experience, strategy

                        Romans retreat: establish first client tribe in Britain

                                    confirm that the end of the world is further west

                        storms in Channel make Julius Caesar turn back

?                                  Julius Caesar sails up Thames to attack; ships sunk by iron and lead stakes                                       under the water line; Cassibellaunus attacks from shore; Romans retreat                                         to Flanders

                                    Fight during celebration between Cassibellaunus’ kinsmen ends in murder;                                      Cassibellaunus and kinsman Androgeus have bitter argument;                                                       Cassibellaunus attacks Androgeus’ land; Androgeus contacts Julius                                                   Caesar about helping him tame Cassibellaunus

                                    Julius Caesar meets Cassibellaunus’ army near Canterbury; Androgeus                                             helps Julius Caesar corner Cassibellaunus on hilltop in siege;                                                       Cassibellaunus begs for Androgeus’ help; Androgeus asks Julius Caesar                                         to stop; tribute will be paid to Rome. Androgeus goes to Rome with                                               Julius Caesar.

52 BC              Battle of Alesia, Vercingetorix and Gauls decisively defeated by Julius Caesar

?                                  King Tenuantius, warrior, promotes justice

29-19 BC        Vergil writes Aeneid; memorization required in Roman schools Geoffrey used

?                                  King Kimbelinus, brought up and knighted by Augustus Caesar

                        Jesus Christ born in Kimbelinus’ reign

4 BC – 5 AD    Dumno, British king, Dunvallo (Dynfwal), name on coins

1st c. AD         Tain bo Cuailnge culture in Ireland

                        “The Wooing of Emer” includes CuChulainn freeing a Hebridean princess from 3                                     Fomoire (mythical sea monsters). He didn’t want the reward of marrying                                         the princess. First example of Dragon Slayer story. Trystan does the same                                        with Morholt. Drust mac Seirb is one of CuChulainn’s followers on the                                          expedition. (Bromwich)               

                        Britain — standard of living rising for people living near Roman outposts

                        Roman religion: worship of the emperor enhanced by adding other gods

                                    Neptune and Minerva are state deities

                                    local leaders could be deities

                                    places (Genius)

                                    abstracts (Fortuna, Disciplinaria, Victoria)

                                    matched Roman-Celtic gods: Minerva-Sulis, Mars-Camulos, Mars-                                                Toutates, Mars-Cocidius, Mars-Leucetius

                        Religion: Mithras worshipped in a mithraeum; mostly near Hadrian’s Wall

                        cost of Roman presence – proscription & taxes – keeps tribes on the attack

                        Arturia gens – Roman names coming to Britain

4 AD               colored rain lasts 5 hours (usually indicates recent volcano)

7                      first recorded Thames flood

14                    major Severn River flood, great damage

15                    gale & sea flood along North Sea coast; many Roman soldiers drown

18                    gale/hurricane; damage much of what is now called Westminster   

40                    storms, rain, hail, and strange lightning ruin corn in England

?                                  King Guider refuses to pay tribute    

43                    Claudius arrives and begins conquest

?                                  King Guider killed in battle against Claudius; bro Arviragus puts on                                                 Guider’s armor and routs Romans. Claudius and Arviragus face each                                         other at Winchester, Claudius, intimidated, offers Arviragus a truce and                                         his daughter to marry if Arviragus just recognizes Rome’s authority over                                        the Britons. Arviragus accepts.

                                    King Arviragus begins with good judgement, but becomes contemptuous                                         of Romans; Vespasian is sent; Queen Gewissa reconciles them;                                                             Vespasian returns to Rome; Arviragus bring peace and law; his                                                       reputation spread to Rome. “Juvenal in his satires tells how a blind man                                         said to Nero, while discussing a newly caught turbot: ‘you will capture a                                        king or Arviragus shall fall from his British chariot.'”

                        4 divisions (25,000 men) and auxiliaries (manned forts, not fighters)

                        Britons have hillforts and keep fighting

43-later            Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus/Togidubnus, king of Regni, made Roman citizen

48                    Thames flood; several thousand people drown; rainfall; tidal/storm surge?

49                    Colchester founded, first Roman colonia

                                    great temple built for state religion: worship of the emperor

50                    severe, extended winter: all rivers & lakes freeze from November to April

60                    Romans cross the Menai Straits destroy religious sanctuaries on Anglesey

                                    Anglesey is particularly wealthy because of copper

                        Boudicca revolts against Roman plundering of the Iceni; Trinovantes too

                                    destroys garrison at Colchester and the garrison’s relievers

                                    revolt leaves layer of ash from London to St Albans

                                    Romans outmaneuver rebels and cut them up

                        great sea floods in both Britain and France

67                    great gale/hurricane in Britain; many die; 15,000 houses fall

68-9                 rain and drought: two-year famine; thousands die

69                    lightning destroys part of London

89                    blood rain for 3 days

?                                  King Marius, great wisdom and knowledge; pays tribute to Rome; justice,                                       peace, law and all honor.

                                    Pictish King Rodric arrives from Scythia, started attacking Albania;                                                 Marius defeats and kills Rodric; province eventually named                                                      Westmoreland after him; “Marius set up a stone; upon it is an inscription                                       which preserves his memory to the present day.” Marius lets surviving                                           Picts live in deserted Caithness; refuses to let Picts marry Britons; sends                                         them to Ireland for wives. “But enough of the Picts, since it is not my                                                   intention to write either their history or that of the Scots, who are                                                    descended from them and the Irish.”

90s                  Lincoln founded as colonia; Gloucester a year later: both former fortresses

                        tribal capitols were also made into towns; aid given for Romanizing

98                    Agricola by Tacitus: unknown until Renaissance

107                  heavy rain for 9 months; then famine

?                                  King Coillus, brought up in Rome, just, showed great respect for nobles

123                  initial conquest complete

                        begin Hadrian’s wall

                        merchants and traders bring news of Christianity

127                  Juvenal’s Satires, Geoffrey used

133                  Hadrian’s wall finished

134                  Thames freezes over for 2 months

139                  drought; Thames dries up for 2 days

150s                Antonine wall begun in response to unrest

153                  severe frost; Thames freezes

?                                  King Lucius, good deeds, asks Pope Eleutherius for instruction in                                                     Christian religion; pope sends Faganus and Duvianus who baptize Lucius                               and all Britons; temples are turned into churches; high priests are                                                    replaced with archbishops at York, London, and Caerleon; pagan priests                                        are replaced by 28 bishops. Faganus and Duvianus return to Rome for                                        confirmation of their work.

                                    Story of baptism of Brits in Bede and Nennius

156      d                      King Lucius without heirs, causing civil strife

165-189           Antonine plague through Empire: 20th Legion mass grave Gloucester

173                  frost for 3 months

174-189           Pope Eleutherius

190+                wall built around London

196                  Clodius Albinus takes all Roman troops to Gaul in hopes of becoming emperor

                        Septimus Severus defeats him

                        Northern tribes destroy walls and forts of Roman Britain

by 199             Expansion of the Roman world has stopped

200                  Lucius Artorius Castus, centurion, Legion VI (York), inscriptions in Croatia

200s                Quiet frontiers, internal security, strong government in Britain, generally

?                                  Roman senate sends Severus; he pushes the Britons up to Alba; Fulgenius                                        fights back with Britons; goes to Scythia to get Pictish troops; ends in                                       battle where Severus is killed and Fulgenius mortally wounded

208 – 211+      Septimus Severus then Caracalla subdue tribes and rebuild

                        Every Roman town in Britain has wall

                        Romans having problems on Rhine and Danube frontiers; some soldiers

                                    in Britain come from those areas

210-220           Reculver built, first of the Saxon Shore forts

?                                  Severus’s sons fight over rule; Bassianus wins

212                  Constitutio Antoniniana: everyone except slaves given Roman citizenship

214                  flood; River Trent overflows 20 miles wide each side

220                  severe frost for 5 months

233                  rain in Scotland for 5 months; then famine

234                  gale in Canterbury blows down 200 houses

245                  sea flood in Lincolnshire loses 1,000 acres to the sea

249                  England blood rains; bloody sword after sunset

249-251           Alban, Aaron, and Julius first British Christians martyred (under Decius)

250c                Thames freezes for 5 to 9 weeks

250s on           Saxon pirates along shores of the Channel

                        Spanish tin mines closed, so Cornish tin mines are reopened

                        Tertullian (Carthage) and Origen (Caesarea) allude to Christianity in Britain

253                  gale? 900 houses blow down in London

270-300           several “sea incursions” in the southern North Sea; implies storm surges of some                           sort — probably the first signs of the climate change at the end of the Roman-                         Celtic ‘benign’ era

277                  storm kills several people in London

?                                  King Bassanius

                                      Carausius gets Roman Senate’s permission to protect coastline; instead,                                          plunders coast; in with Picts; kills Bassianus; gives Picts Scotland

                                    King Carausius

287-293           Roman fleet commander in Britain Carausius (from Belgium) proclaims himself                                       emperor and rules Britain, the Low Countries, and northern Gaul

                        Northern tribes take opportunity to pillage as far south as Chester

?                                  Alectus, sent by Senate, assassinates Carausius and punishes Britons for                                          deserting the Roman state to join Carausius. Britons support                                                        Asclepiodotus, duke of Cornwall; big fight; Allectus is killed; Livius                                              Gallus gathers Romans in London; Briton tribes Demeti, Venedoti, Deiri,                                      and Albani arrive to help siege; Romans beg for mercy; Asclepiodotus is                                              going to show mercy, but Venedoti kill all the Romans.

                                    King Asclepiodotus, rules 10 years in full justice and peace

291c                severe winter in Britain; most rivers freeze for 6 to 9 weeks

293-296           Allectus assassinates Carausius, Emperor Britain/Gaul;

295-6               severe winter in Easton

296                  Constantius Chlorus (a caesar) kills Allectus; cleans up the north

                                    builds shore forts on the Channel and rivers, including Irish Sea

?                                  Rome sends Maximianus Herculius to Britain; he demolishes the                                                      churches, burns sacred writings; executes priests and believers; martyrs:                                            Alban of Verolamium, Julius and Aaron of Caerleon

?                                  Coel, duke of Kaercolum (Colchester), kills Asclepiodotus in battle; takes                                        crown

                                    King Coel; Rome sends Constantius who agrees to keep Coel king, pay                                            tribute

                                    Coel crowns Constantius before dying; Constantius m Coel’s dau Helena                                          “She was more beautiful than any girl in the country and was considered                                              to have no equal in playing musical instruments and in the liberal arts.                                                   Lacking any other offspring to inherit the throne, her father had taken                                             pains to educate her in such a way that she could rule the country more                                               easily when he died.”

                                    King Constantius rules for 11 years, wise and brave

                                    King Constantine, maintains justice and reestablishes peace

                                      (Geoffrey’s desc similar to Wm of M’s desc of immigrants under H1)

                                      refugees from Maxentius’ despotism in Rome flee to Britain, beg                                                    Constantine to act; Constantine marches on Rome; conquers it; gains                                           control of the whole world; makes Helena’s 3 uncles senators;

                                    Octavius, duke of Gewissei, rebels and occupies throne of Britain

                                      Trahern (Helena’s uncle) fights Octavius, loses, nearly wins; murdered                

300s                generally prosperous

301                  Edict of Diocletian sets maximum prices: British hooded cloaks & rugs valuable

303                  Diocletianic Persecution of Christians by emperors Diocletian, Maximian,                                                 Galerius, and Constantius.

313                  Edict of Milan by Constantine and Licinius ends persecution of Christians

314                  Council of Arles condemns Donatist heresy; bishops present from York, London,                                      and probably Colchester

316-97             St Martin of Tours

324                  rain of blood for 6 hours in Somerset

329                  most rivers freeze for 6 weeks; deep snow in Wales (may have been 359)

341                  Britain: snow up to 15 feet lies for 6 weeks

347                  British church reps at the Council of Sardica

349                  gale; 420 houses fall, many die, in Carlisle

350 +/-            Pelagius born in Britain

359                  continuous frost for 14 weeks in Scotland (may have been 329)

                        British church reps at the Council of Ariminum

362                  drought in London

?                                  King Octavius, rich and long lived, no son only dau

                                      succession planning: Conanus Meriadocus wants crown; Caradocus duke                                       of Cornwall sends his son Mauricus to Rome to invite Maximianus to be                                                king; Octavius agrees to hand crown and dau to Maximianus; fighting                                                   with Conanus until make friends.

                                    King Maximianus, 5 years on, wants to conquer France; starts with                                                   Armorica for Conanus Meriadocus; ships in 100,000 Brits to make                                        Armorica a second Britain; kills Emperor Gratian and drives Emperor                                            Valentinian from Rome

                                    Conanus Meriadocus finally quells French and orders 11,000 wives from                                         England. “Many amid such a throng were pleased by the plan, but more                                           objected, having greater affection for their parents and country; probably                                                there were also some who preferred virginity to marriage, being willing                                         to die anywhere on earth rather than to seek wealth in such a way.” Ships                                       sank; women drowned, were killed, or were made slaves. Wanius king of                                      Huns and Melga king of Franks find girls, kill them, then attack Britain.

                                    Maximianus sends Gratianus Municeps to Britain; he drives Huns and                                              Franks into Ireland

                                    Maximianus is murdered in Rome

                                    King Gratianus Municeps, tyrant so bad a bunch of commoners killed him

                                    Back come Wanius and Melga with Irish, Norwegians, and Danes

                                      entreaties sent to Rome

                                    Legion cleans Wanius, Melga, Irish, Norwegians, and Danes out of Britain

                                      tells Brits to build a wall from coast to coast bet Scotland and Deira

                                    Romans tell Brits they won’t help them anymore

                                    Brits are attacked again and slaughtered; Romans refuse to help

367                  combined Pict, Scot, Saxon, and Frankish attacks

                                    Pict on far north

                                    Scot on the west

                                    Saxons and Franks on south and east Britain and northern Gaul

                        Count Theodosius sent by Vespasion?, takes 3 years to set things straight

                                    Hadrian’s Wall rebuilt but not manned

                                    fortified towns that had grown in area kept the peace pretty much

374                  drought

before 381       Cassibellaunus — Bede mentions

383                  Magnus Maximus — high military officer in Britain (Spanish) takes troops to fight                                    emperor Gratian near Paris; Gratian flees and is murdered in Lyons

                                    Magnus Maximus bleeding Britain of Roman troops

                        Roman Empire divided:

                                    Magnus Maximus holds Gaul, Spain, and Britain

                                    Theodosius the Great in Constantinople

                                    Valentinian II (Gratian bro) in Italy

387                  Magnus Maximus invades Italy

388                  Magnus Maximus killed fighting Theodosius

                        Empire reunited under Theodosius

?                                  Guithelinus, Archbishop of London, crosses to Armorica to ask King                                               Aldroenus for help. Androenus doesn’t want to help Britons because they                                     were willing to submit to Rome. “… the evil sway of Rome has done it so                                  much harm that no one can enjoy lasting power there without losing their                                      freedom, oppressed beneath the yoke of slavery.” He entrusts Guithelinus                                     with his brother Constantinus, an excellent soldier, and troops.

                                    King Constantinus, has sons Constans, Aurelius Ambrosius, Uther                                                    Pendragon;

                                    Constans is made a monk; Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon are                                          given to Archbishop Guithelinus to bring up

                                    10 years later, a Pict stabs and kills King Constantinus

                                    Vortigern, earl of the Gewissei, convinces Constans to become king

                                      (V blamed in Nennius/Bede/Gildas/HoH; Geoffrey greatly expands)

                                    King Constans, gives all power to Vortigern who then wants to be king

                                      Vortigern uses Picts to kill Constans; AA and UP run to Brittany

                                    King Vortigern, worried about attacks from Picts, and AA and UP

                                    Hengest and Horsa land in Kent (“mare” and “stallion”)

                                    Saxons rout a Pictish attack for Vortigern

                                    Vortigern gives Hengest the area of Lindsey

                                    more Saxons arrive, inc Hengest’s dau Ronwein,

                                      “Lauerd king, wassail.” “Drincheil.” Terms still used.

                                      Vortigern gets Ronwein in exchange for Kent

                                    Octa and more Saxons arrive

                                    Brits worried because “no one knew who was pagan and who Christian,                                           since the pagans had married their daughters and relatives.” They                                                   abandon Vortigern and crown his son Vortimer.

                                    King Vortimer, successful against Saxon fighters who leave for Germany;                                       Ronwein poisons him

                                    King Vortigern (continued), sends for Hengest and Saxons; Hengest offers                                      to have a meeting with all the Saxon nobles to decide how many Saxons                                                 should return to Germany; May Day; Brits come unarmed; Saxons hide                                           knives and sit in between the Brits; “nimet oure saxas” (Draw our                                                               knives); 460 killed; Eldol, earl of Gloucester one of the few survivors;                                               Saxons threaten Vortigern so he gives them all the cities; he runs to                                                Wales

                                      Summons magicians; they say, build a very strong tower

                                      Tower keeps sinking; magicians say to use blood of boy with no dad

                                      soldiers find Merlin; mom says she was a nun and a guy kept appearing                                         in the night; magician Maugantius says the guy was an incubi, part                                       human and part angel. Merlin tells Vortigern that his magicians don’t                                             know what they’re doing. He tells them that there is a pool underneath                                            the tower; further, that there are dragons in the pool.

                                      The dragons are uncovered.

                                    Merlin is moved by his spirit (& Vortigern’s wishes) to relate Prophecies.

                                    Prophecies of Merlin

                                    Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon land the next day

                                    King Aurelius Ambrosius, giver, pious, hated lies, moderate, top                                                      soldier/commander, famous

                                      burns Vortigern in his tower (first, handle betrayer of his father)

                                      has Breton soldiers as well as Brits inc Demetae, Venedoti, Eldol of                                               Gloucester, Gorlois of Cornwall; defeats Saxons; Hengest prisoner

                                      Bishop decides Hengest’s and Octa’s fates based on OT prophets

                                      restores churches, cities, families, laws

                                      wants to build monument in memory of the nobles betrayed by Hengest

                                      no carpenters/stonemasons can help;

                                      Tremorinus archbishop of Caerleon             suggests Merlin; he’s found at the                                            spring of Galahes in Gewissei; he refuses to prophesy without purpose;                                               King Aurelius Ambrosius asks about monument; Merlin says to move the                                               Giants’ Ring from Ireland; the stones are magic & healing, brought by                                            African giants; Merlin and Uther Pendragon take troops to Ireland; no                                               one can take stones down until Merlin prepares contrivances; set up as                                                  Stonehenge burial memorial

                                    Samson archbishop of York; Dubricius archbishop of Caerleon; Saxons                                           attack, are put down, retreat to King Gillomanius of Ireland;

                                    Eopa offers to poison the already ill Aurelius Ambrosius, shaves off his                                           beard, tonsures his hair, poses as doctor, poisons Aurelius Ambrosius

                                    Uther Pendragon, about to fight Irish/Saxons, sees comet of “great size                                          and brightness, with a single tail. Attached to the tail was a fiery mass                                            stretching out like a dragon, from whose mouth issued two rays, one of                                                 which seemed to extend beyond the skies of France, the other towards the                                      Irish sea and to end in seven smaller rays.”

                                    Merlin says AA is dead; Uther needs to attack immediately and will win                                          and become king (Uther is comet and dragon); ray over France is Uther’s                                             powerful son will possess all kingdoms beneath the ray; other ray is                                                   Uther’s daughter whose sons and grandsons will rule Britain.

                                    King Uther Pendragon, has 2 dragons cast in gold: 1 for Winchester, 1 for                                        battle

                                      Saxons invade and corner Britons, Britons win; Uther puts down                                                    Scotland

                                    Easter celebration: Uther infatuated by Gorlois’ wife Igerna; Gorlois                                                 leaves in anger “since he feared to lose the thing he loved the most,”                                         Uther angry at Gorlois, attacks Cornwall; Gorlois at Dimilioc, Igerna at                                         Tintagel; advisor Ulfin of Ridcaradoc says Tintagel is impregnable, only                                        Merlin could help; “When he saw how troubled the king was on her                                            account, Merlin was moved by Uther’s great passion.” Strange arts and                                                   herbs. Uther “cured himself through the love-making he had longed for.”                                       Meanwhile, Gorlois is killed and belongings ransacked; message sent to                                                   Igerna; Uther doesn’t get caught. Marries Igerna, kids Arthur and Anna.

                                    (wife abductions: Gruffydd ap Llywelyn 1039; Nest 1109; Welsh law.                                           Classical: Hercules, Alcmena, Amphitryon; Welsh: Pryderi; Irish:                                                           CuChulainn, 4 more)

                                      *enough years pass for dau Anna to marry Loth of Lothian*

                                      Loth is defending against Saxons while Uther is ill; Saxon upper hand;                                           Uther leads from a litter; destroys almost all Saxons

                                      Saxons poison the well Uther uses; king and 100 men die

                                    King Arthur, 15, generous, war on Saxons to give gifts with their wealth;                                         “Right was on his side as he should have been ruler of the entire island                                                  by lawful inheritance.”

                                    Battle at River Duglas (area of York), Saxons, Scots, Picts; Arthur wins;                                          Saxons retreat

                                      Cador duke of Cornwall slaughters Saxons

                                      Baldulfus, Saxon seeking besieged bro Colgrimus, shaves off hair and                                            beard, assumes dress of a player with a harp. When Saxons inside wall                                                  recognize him, they pull him up inside using ropes. Nothing further                                                   develops with this bit of story.

                                      King Hoelus of Brittany is son of Arthur’s sister and king Budicius of the                                       Armorican Britons (Double sister); helps Arthur

                                    Battle at Kaerluidcoit (Lincoln) Arthur wins, pursues Saxons into forest of                                       Colidon; Saxons aided by trees; Arthur has trees cut down, trunks used to                                   barricade Saxons in. Starving Saxons give in, give their wealth to Arthur,                                       set sail for Germany, change their minds, land at Totnes.

                                    Arthur rushes to Bath leaving sick Hoelus up north

                                    Battle of Bath

                                      Dubricius archibishop of Caerleon invokes Crusade-talk in urging                                                  soldiers: “If any of you falls in this battle, let his death, provided he does                                            not shrink from it, be the repentance and cleansing of all his sins.”

                                    Arthur: hauberk worthy of a mighty king

                                      golden helmet engraved with image of dragon

                                      shoulders his shield Pridwen, depicting Virgin Mary

                                      Caliburnus forged on the isle of Avallon

                                      spear called Ron, long, broad-bladed

                                    Arthur’s forces overcome Saxons; Arthur leaves Cador to mop up

                                      Cador first makes sure the Saxons can’t get to their ships

                                      Cador chases Saxons to Isle of Thanet; wipes them out; joins Arthur

                                    Britain is free of Saxons

                                    Loch Lomond: 60 islands, 60 rivers, 1 flows to sea; eagles, nest on each                                           isle, cry out marvels; Scots and Picts starve; Gillamurius, king of Ireland,                           attacks Arthur then retreats; Arthur wiping out every Scot, and Pict

                                      bishops come to Arthur barefoot, carrying relics, beg for mercy

                                    Scots, Picts, and Irish are completely conquered

                                    Hoelus visits loch and islands; Arthur tells of square area nearby

                                    Wales/Severn/Linligwan: extreme tidal bore

                                    York for Christmas; Samson and others had fled; Piramus archbishop

                                    Arthur restores church and nobility; Loth, Urianus, Auguselus

                                    Loth, during AA’s reign m king’s sister, sons Gawain and Modred

                                    (Culwch & Olwen = Arthur leads band of international warriors. Curley)

                                    Arthur desires to conquer Ireland, does; defeats Iceland

                                    Gotland and Orkney come to him and submit

                                    12 years of peace

                                    Arthur invites best men from foreign kingdoms; he’s envied

                                    Arthur exults at being universally feared & decides to conquer

                                    Beats Norway to put Loth on throne he should have inherited

                                    Gawain is 12 years old

                                    Arthur attacks Roman province of Gaul under tribune Frollo

                                    Leo is emperor of Rome (doesn’t exist)

                                    One-on-one combat bet Arthur and Frollo on island; dramatic

                                      Arthur receives dangerous hit; angered, gives Frollo mortal wound

                                      “When Arthur saw his hauberk and shield red with his own flowing                                                blood, his anger knew no bounds and, raising Caliburnus with all his                                         strength, he brought it down through Frollo’s helmet and cut his head in                                         two. Frollo fell mortally wounded, drumming the earth with his heels,                                            and breathed his last.”

                                    (HofH describes Edmund Ironsides 1-on-1 combat with Cnut. Cnut,                                               losing, suggests they should divide kingdom. They do.

                                    WmofM says Wm Conq offered to fight Harald 1-on-1)

                                    9 years: Arthur has Hoelus subue Poitou and Arthur subdues the rest

                                    Beduerus, butler gets Normandy; Kaius, steward gets Anjou

                                    Whitsun Feast at Caerleon, chosen for wealth, position, spaces,                                                         archbishopric

                                      college of 200 scholars in astronomy and other sciences

                                      many kings, nobles with trappings, mules, horses, anyone “worth his                                              salt”

                                      coronation then feasts; golden swords, doves; old Trojan custom to                                                 celebrate feast days separately; music, singing; ermine, vair; “So noble                                         was Britain then that it surpassed other kingdoms in its inhabitants. All                                                   its doughty knights wore clothes and armour of a single colour. Its                                                  elegant ladies, similarly dressed, spurned the love of any man who had                                             not proved himself three times in battle. So the ladies were chaste and                                             better women, whilst the knights conducted themselves more virtuously                                         for the sake of their love.” Sports feigning battle, boxing gloves, spears,                                           throwing heavy stones, chess, dice. Arthur rewards winners and hands                                            out gifts. Dubricius archbishop of Caerleon retires and Arthur’s uncle                                             David takes his place. Archbishop Samson of Dol is replaced by Teliaus,                                         priest of Llandaff. Maugannius made bishop of Silchester, Duvianus                                         made bishop of Winchester, Eledenius made bishop of Dumbarton.

                                    Geoffrey takes names from native source in the British language

                                      12 mature men carrying olive branches bring message from Lucius                                                 Hiberius (Geoffrey invents) Roman procurator; charges Arthur with (1)                                       conquering Roman Gaul and (2) not paying tribute. Orders Arthur to                                                   appear at Rome; otherwise, Rome will “recover with the sword” what                                             Arthur has taken.

                                    Arthur and advisors interpret this as aggression from Rome deserving war                                       from Arthur (1) “what is obtained by force of arms is never the rightful                                                possession of the aggressor,” (2) Rome should pay tribute to Britain                                                   because Beli & Brennius, then Constantine and Maximianus were both                                          kings of Britain then Rome, (3) we are soaked in freedom, (4) the Sibyl                                              and God are with us.

                                      Arthur hears that Lucius Hiberius is heading out of Rome

                                      Mordred and Queen Ganhumara in charge of Britain

                                      Crossing the Channel, Arthur dreams of a bear flying, growling, and                                              dragon swooping from west; wondrous duel which dragon wins                                                         Interpreters say it’s Arthur fighting giant; Arthur thinks otherwise; giant                                          from Spain has abducted Hoelus’s niece Helena; Arthur, Kaius, and                                                Beduerus find Helena’s nurse; Arthur fights dragon and laughs, recalling                                         earlier giant fight (Ritho had a cloak of beards from his kills)
                                      Helena’s tomb on nearby island Tombelaine

                                      Autun, Boso of Oxford, Gerinus of Chartres, and Gawain meet Romans

                                      Lucius’s forces have Muslim sounding names and places

                                      Gawain responds to verbal insult with kill; takes prisoners from Romans                                        chasing them            

                                    Arthur v. Rome: Kaius brings body of Bederus to Arthur’s golden dragon                                         standard then dies; death avenged; lose earls of Flanders, Boulogne,                                          Chester, Salisbury, Bath; saved by Armorican Britons led by Hoelus and                                       Gawain; then saved by Arthur; then saved by Morvid earl of Gloucester;                                        Lucius killed; Arthur wins

                                    Arthur begins to march on Rome and Emperor Leo in summer, but news                                          comes of Modred’s and Ganhumara’s betrayals.

                                    King Arthur returns to Britain with only troops from the islands and                                                 Britain

                                    Modred has imported lots of Saxons, as well as Picts, Scots, Irish,                                                    fugitives, Arthur’s enemies

                                    Battle trying to land at Richborough, Gawain killed, Arthur lands

                                    Modred heads to Winchester

                                    Queen Ganhumara flees from York to Caerleon, takes veil with nuns at                                          Church of St Julius

                                    Battle at Winchester: Modred retreats to Cornwall

                                    Battle at River Camblan: Modred dies, Arthur mortally wounded, taken                                         away to island of Avallon

542                              Arthur gives crown to Constantinus, son of Cador, duke of Cornwall

390 c   b          St Patrick in Roman Britain: father a deacon, grandfather a priest

                                    probably educated in reading, writing, public speaking

                                    at 16, captured with thousands by Irish and enslaved

395      d          Theodosius

                        child Honorius is emperor

391-410           Pelagius in Rome

end of c           Romano-Saxon pottery appears in eastern Britain

400                  cold winter

400-480           frequent storminess in North Sea; English Channel coastal changes

400-600           Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, Swabians

                                    Blair, Roman Britain and Early England: 55BC – AD 871

                                    gradual settling in Britain

                                    move from Roman farms to Anglo-Saxon villages

400-500           Cantiorix Stone near Ffestiniog, Wales. “Cantiori lies here; he was a citizen of                                          Gwynedd, a cousin of Maglus the magistrate.” 1st mention of kingdom of                                      Gwynedd. Suggests continuing Roman language and political system.

before 410       Gerentius, British general, rebels against Constantine

410                  after 2 usurpers, Constantine III takes troops to Gaul; captured in Arles;

                        Britain now defenseless, abandoned by civil admin staff and field army

                        only civitates, the cantonal capitals of local government, are left

                        Honorius writes to the civitates to look out for their own defenses

                                    Roman Britain org & mindset without armies and top leaders

                        Visigoths sack Rome

                        severe winter

411                  Pelagius at the synod of Carthage

417                  Orosius writes Historiae Adversus Paganos; Geoffrey uses

                                    Orosius was traveler who visited Augustine and Jerome

418-421           Dunvallo “Molmutius,” king of Cornwall, formerly Count of the Saxon Shore, in                                      Roman service, was the power in southern England

423                  Britain no longer part of the Roman Empire

429                  Germanus, bishop of Auxerre, comes to Britain to refute Pelagian teachings

over time         Christianity spreads to Wales, Ireland, and Scotland

425-455 R       Vortigern (Gildas doesn’t name, Bede does) Geoffrey uses

431-32             cold winter

436                  a huge snow in Ireland

439                  famine; drought

445                  Patrick has stone church built at Armagh, monastic community develops

446-450           Britons appeal to Roman Counsel Aetius for aid — Bede

446 c               Epistola of St Patrick

                        Confessio of St Patrick

                        Passage of Dominion from Brits to Saxons — attack by Hengist & Horsa

                        Hengist and Horsa among the Jutes invading

449                  Vortigern (Wertigern), Hengist and Horsa, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

450 c               migration from Hampshire & southern Britain to north-western Gaul begins

                        De rei militari by Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus Geoffrey knew

453                  tradition is that Hengist founds Kent

                                    “At that time the Saxons increased in numbers and grew in Britain. After                                       the death of Hengist, Octa, his son, came down from the north part of                                         Britain to the kingdom of the Kentishmen, and from there are sprung the                                        kings of the Kentishmen. Then Arthur fought at that time against them in                                       those days along with the kings of the Britons, but he was their leader in                                              battles.” (Historia Brittonum)

454                  Britain: drought, then famine

455                  battle in Kent against Saxons

457                  battle in Kent against Saxons; Brits flee to London

            d          St. Patrick (Annales Cambriae)

461-462           severe winter  

465 – 473         battles in Kent against Saxons; Brits fleeing

470                  Scotland: 10 months of rain

470 c               Riothamus, Romano-British military leader

474                  4 months of great snow

477-491  R      AElle, king of the South Saxons (broad dates)

479                  Thames-based flood

480-500  b       Saint Teilo

480-547           Saint Benedict of Nursia, “Rule of Saint Benedict”

                                    Saint Florent, follower of Benedict?

490??              siege of Mons Badonicus — Gildas says about 50 yrs of peace followed

                                    Ambrosius Aurelianus won the battle for the Brits

497 c   b          Saint Cadoc, Abbot of Lancarfan, Wales — vita written before 1086 by Lifris

                                    “Cadoc came into conflict with Arthur: the vita depicts Arthur as great and                                    bold but willful. Lifris writes that Cadoc gave protection to a man who had                                     killed three of Arthur’s soldiers and Arthur was awarded a herd of cattle                                                 from Cadoc as compensation. Cadoc delivered them but when Arthur took                                     possession of them they were transformed into bundles of ferns. In the                                       later Arthurian Welsh Triads, Cadoc, with Illtud and Peredur, is one of                                                 three knights said to have become keepers of the Holy Grail. The kings                                          Maelgwn of Gwynedd and Rhain Dremrudd of Brycheiniog also feature in                                    Cadoc’s vita. Saint Cadoc’s Church at Caerleon, which, though of Norman                                      origin and much rebuilt, stands on the foundations of the Roman legion                                          headquarters, and may memorialize an early cell of Cadoc’s, an old                                                traditionsuggests that in this case Cadoc is a corruption of Cadfrod.                                          Caerleon was also associated with Arthur.” (Wikipedia)

500      d          King Gwynllyw (Woolos), Saint, father of Cadoc, wife was Gwladys (Gladys)

                                    Stow Hill, now Newport Cathedral, both he & wife hermits, fountain

                                    figure in Arthur tales

                        “By this time, the storminess of the latter part of the 5th century had ‘re-arranged’                                      some coastal alignment in East Anglia. . . Also note that evidence of                                         significant rise in peat bog deposits by or around this time: there implies                                        greater ‘wetness’ (and presumably cyclonicity).”

500s                Saint Carantoc, abbot, confessor, and saint in Wales and the West Country, listed                                      among the Cornish Saints. “The saint, having returned to Wales, crossed                                               the Bristol Channel, looking for his portable altar. He arrived on the banks                           of the River Willett and came into conflict with both King Cado of                                                             Dumnonia and King Arthur at Dunster in Somerset. Carantoc was                                                   eventually obliged to defeat a ferocious dragon in order to retrieve his altar                                  and, in return, was given land at nearby Carhampton to found a                                                       monastery.” (Wikipedia)

                        Saint Goeznovius/Goueznou, Cornish-born bishop of Leon in Brittany, Legenda                                       Sancti Goeznovii, 1100s/1200s “The preface describes the traditional story                              of Vortigern, who usurps the British throne and invites Saxon warriors                                                 into the country as protection. The Saxons caused great suffering among                                        the Britons, until they were largely driven out by the new king, Arthur.                                              Arthur proceeded to win battles in Britain and in Gaul but was eventually                                           “summoned… from human activity,” paving the way for the Saxons to                                           return. The Saxon persecution caused many of the Britons to flee to Gaul,                                             where they established Brittany.” (Wikipedia)

                        St. Illtud  “Illtud the Knight”, “is venerated as the founder-abbot and teacher of a                                       divinity school in the Welsh county of Glamorgan. He founded the                                                            monastery and college in the 6th century, and the school is believed to be                                      Britain’s earliest centre of learning. At its height, it had over 1000 pupils                                       and schooled many of the great saints of the age, including Saint David of                                            Wales, Gildas the Historian, and Samson of Dol. St. Illtud was popular                                      among the very ancient Celts, but there are few dependable sources about                                      his life story. The earliest mention of St. Illtud is in the Vita Sancti                                                       Sampsonis, written in Dol, Brittany, about 600 AD. According to this                                                account, Illtud was the disciple of Bishop Germanus of Auxerre in north-                                       central France. According to the St. Sampson biography, Illtud was the                                          most accomplished of all the Britons, and was well versed in the scriptures                                of the Old and New Testaments, as well as every type of philosophy,                                              including geometry, rhetoric, grammar, and arithmetic. He was also                                               “gifted with the power of foretelling future events.” It appears that he was                                                 an educated Briton living shortly after Rome’s departure from the West.

                                    “According to a rather untrustworthy later Norman Life of St. Illtud, c.                                            1140, Illtud was the son of a Breton prince and a cousin of King                                                             Arthur. According to this Life, Illtud’s parents intended him for service in                                             the church and had him educated in literature for this purpose. However,                                        he forsook his religious upbringing, choosing instead to pursue a military                                      career. He took a wife named Trynihid, and became a soldier in western                                                Britain (now Wales), in service first to King Arthur, and then to the King                                       Poulentus. As a result of this, he is sometimes called St. Illtud the Knight.                                            One afternoon, he took a hunting party onto the lands of Cadoc. The party                                            sent a message to the abbot, demanding that the abbot feed them. The                                             abbot deemed their demand to be very rude and improper, but graciously                                       offered them a meal anyway. Before they could enjoy the meal, the ground                               opened up and swallowed the whole party as just punishment for their                                            impiety. Only Illtud was spared, and he went to St. Cadog on his knees,                                         begging forgiveness for his sinful act. The abbot told him to give up his                                      selfish ways and go back to his religious upbringing. Inspired, Illtud gave                                      up his wife, and became a hermit in the Vale of Glamorgan (a matrimonial                                    detail which, like many of his alleged miracles, may be regarded as fairly                                        dubious).

                                    “What is certain is that Illtud helped pioneer the monastic life of Wales by                                                 founding a monastery in what is now Llantwit Major. This became the                                     first major Welsh monastic school, and was a hub of Celtic Christianity in                                                 Sub-Roman Britain.

                                    “Illtud’s own pupils are reckoned to have included seven sons of British                                         princes and scholars such as Saint Patrick, Paul Aurelian, Taliesin, Gildas                                            and Samson of Dol. Saint David is also believed to have spent some time                                         there.” (Wikipedia)

                        The earliest mention of St. Illtud is in the Vita Sancti Sampsonis, written in Dol,                                        Brittany, about 600 AD. “According to this account, Illtud was the disciple                            of Bishop Germanus of Auxerre in north-central France. According to the                                     St Sampson biography, Illtud was the most accomplished of all the                                                             Britons, and was well versed in the scriptures of the Old and New                                                      Testaments, as well as every type of philosophy, including geometry,                                            rhetoric, grammar, and arithmetic. He was also ‘gifted with the power of                                        foretelling future events.’ It appears that he was an educated Briton living                                            shortly after Rome’s departure from the West.”

                        Memorial Stone at Castle Dore in Cornwall: DRVSTANUS HIC IACUT                                                   CVNOMORI FILIUS. Tristian is Pictish name.

                        King March rules either Glamorgan or Cornwall. Vita of St Paul Aurelain

                        Tyrannical King Meirchiawn rules in Glamorgan in same period

                        March ap Meirchiawn mentioned in the Triads, the Breuddwydd Rhonabwy, and                                       the Stanzas of the Grave. March (Marcus) is a personal name in Welsh.                                               March = horse

508                  Rivers freeze for 2 months

516                  “The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ                          for three days and three nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors.”                                (Annales Cambriae)

unknown date from Historia Brittonum: “The first battle was at the mouth of the river called                                Glein. The second, the third, the fourth, and the fifth were on another river, called                              the Douglas, which is in the country of Linnius. The sixth battle was on the river                            called Bassas. The seventh battle was in Celyddon forest, that is, the Battle of                                Celyddon Coed. The eighth battle was at Guinnion fort, and in it Arthur carried                           the image of the holy Mary, the everlasting virgin, on his shoulder, and the                               heathen were put to flight that day, and there was great slaughter upon them,                                 through the power of Our Lord Jesus Christ and the power of the Holy Virgin                          Mary, his mother. The ninth battle was fought in the city of the Legion. The tenth                            battle was fought on the bank of the river called Tryfrwyd. The eleventh battle                              was on the hill called Agned. The twelfth battle was on Badon hill and in it nine                           hundred and sixty men fell in one day, from a single charge of Arthur’s, and no                         one laid them low save he alone, and he was victorious in all his campaigns.”

516c                Hygelac’s death, recorded by Gregory of Tours (Beowulf)

518 c               St Teilo, St David, and St Padam make pilgrimage to Jerusalem where all 3 are                                         consecrated bishops by John III, Patriarch of Jerusalem.

518-603           St Kentigern (Mungo), mother was daughter of King of Lothia, (Jocelyn source)

                                    legend that Owain mab Urien (d. 595) was father

                                    created see of Glasgow in 540

                                    553 to Wales, stayed with St David, founded St Asaph’s

                                    back in Glasgow, met St Columba

                                    figures in Merlin stories

519      R         Cerdic, King of the Gewissae, earliest known king of Wessex, according to

                                    king list written in Glastonbury in the 930s, during Aethelstan’s reign

520                  major storm surge in Cardigan Bay

521                  Samson ordained bishop by St Dubricius (Life of St Samson, 7th c.)

525                  Thames frozen for 6 weeks

522c                young King Arthur breaks Saxons near Bath at Mount Badon

                        victory there enables him to unify kingdom and become global power, nearly                                            winning Rome

530 +/-            Samson builds monastery in Cornwall at Fowey on way to Dol (Charles Thomas)

?                      Samson moved to Dol, established a monastery

                        “Tours, which was the metropolis of the province of Armorica under the Romans,                                    enjoyed, from the time of St. Martin, the metropolitical jurisdiction over                                              Mans, Angers, and the nine bishoprics of Brittany. Sampson the Elder,                                                 bishop of York, being expelled by the Saxons, came into Armorica, and                                         founded the see of Dol, in which he exercised a metropolitical jurisdiction,                               which King Howel or Rioval obliged him to assert, because these Britons                                                were an independent people, separate from the Gauls. Sampson’s two                                            successors, St. Turiave and St. Sampson, enjoyed the same. The contest                                                between Tours and Dol was not finished till Innocent III in 1199 declared                                             Dol and all the other bishoprics of Brittany subject to the Archbishop of                                         Tours.” (

534      d          Cerdic

                        stable, unified government, threatened by Mordred from within

535 or 536       volcanic eruption in East Indies “is estimated to have put around 300Mt of                                     aerosols into the stratosphere. This would have brought about an abrupt drop in                          world-wide temperature, and concomitant changes in atmospheric (& perhaps                               oceanic) circulation. It is thought that the effects (famine etc) were experienced                             over the (then) known world, with a ‘severe plague’ in the years 541-544 possibly                                  connected; up to 25% of the populations of Africa, Europe and Asia affected. A                                     ‘famine’/shortage of bread noted over Ireland in 538, and, if accepted as part of                              this phase, a severe winter in 554. [some publications have the effects lasting until                   at least 555, and certainly tree-ring data suggest a period of reduced growth for                                     western Europe up to at least 545… These events may be the origin of the ‘Rimbul                         winter’ of Norse legend.” (

537                  “The battle of Camlan, in which Arthur and Medraut fell: and there was a plague                           in Britain and Ireland.” (Annales Cambriae)

                        Annales Cambriae doesn’t say Arthur and Mordred were antagonists

538      b          Gregory of Tours

542      d                      King Arthur (mortally wounded, goes off to Isle of Avalon)

                                    King Constantinus, son of Cador, Duke of Cornwall

                                      defeats Modred’s sons who flee

                                      David bishop of Bangor dies

                                      Theonus bishop of Gloucester is raised to archbishop of London

                                      David archbishop of Caerleon dies at Menevia, replaced by Kinocus

                                      Constantinus murders Modred’s sons, one in monastery, one in church

                        Britain hit by devastating plagues and famines

                        surviving Britons flee to Wales

544-545           intensely cold winter

547-547 d                   King Constantinus, of God’s wrath

                                    King Aurelius Conanus, fond of civil strife

547      d          Maelgwn Gwynedd, king of Gwynedd, in Gildas and Geoffrey, Red Book

                        in Welsh legend from before 1100, Taliesin and Myrddin speak of Maelgwn                                  invasion of Dyfed. Myrddin speaks for the men of Dyfed. Taliesin speaks for                              Maelgwn and his followers. The dialogue then switches (see 573)

547-550           Justinian Plague in Roman Empire

547-550           Yellow Plague in Wales, Ireland

548 or 549       possible severe gale/storm in London; many houses damaged and several people                           killed.

549                  St. Teilo moves congregation to Cornwall, then to Dol because of Yellow Plague

550                              King Vortiporius, puts down huge Saxon attack, monarch of entire                                                   kingdom, ruled people well and in peace

550 c   d          Saint Padarn “an early 6th century abbot-bishop who founded St Padarn’s Church                                      in Ceredigion, Wales. The first bishop of Braga and Saint Paternus of                                        Avranches in Normandy appear to be the same person. Padarn built a                                             monastery in Vannes and is considered one of the seven founding saints of                                    Brittany.”

                                    “Padern became a student at Saint Illtud’s school.”

                                    “Maelgwn Gwynedd tried to cheat him out of property belonging to the                                         monastery.”

                                    “When Padarn was in his church resting after so much labour at sea, a                                            certain tyrant, Arthur by name, was traversing the regions on either side,                                            who one day came to the cell of saint Padarn the bishop. And while he was                              addressing Padarn, he looked at the tunic, which he, being pierced with the                                    zeal of avarice, sought for his own. The saint answering said, ‘This tunic                                               is not fitting for the habit of any malign person, but for the habit of the                                                 clerical office.’ He went out of the monastery in a rage. And again he                                             returns in wrath, that he might take away the tunic against the counsels of                                         his own companions. One of the disciples of Padarn seeing him returning                                             in fury, ran to saint Padarn and said, ‘The tyrant, who went out from here                                       before, is returning. Reviling, stamping, he levels the ground with his                                                 feet’. Padarn answers ‘Nay rather, may the earth swallow him.’ With the                                     word straightway the earth opens the hollow of its depth, and swallows                                          Arthur up to his chin. He, immediately acknowledging his guilt, begins to                                               praise both God and Padarn, until, while he begs forgiveness, the earth                                      delivered him up. From that place on bent knees he begged the saint for                                         indulgence, whom the saint forgave. And he took Padarn as his continual                                       patron, and so departed.” (Wikipedia)

550c                Gildas’s De excidio Britanniae et conquestu Geoffrey uses

                                    states that he is aware of but not including valiant acts of Brits

                                    writing in a time of peace

                                    mentions siege of Mount Badon as major victory over Saxons

                                    mentions Ambrosius Aurelianus as winning against Saxons

552                  Saxons defeat Brits at Old Sarum

553-554           “Winter ‘so severe’ with frost & snow that ‘the birds and wild animals became so                           tame as to allow themselves to be taken by hand.'”

554 c               Gerennius, King of Cornwall, meets St Teilo (Life of St Teilo, Book of Llandaff)

556                  Saxons defeat Brits at Barbury near Swindon

556-573           Samson attends a council in Paris

560-593 R       Ceawlin, king of the West Saxons (broad dates)

560-616 R       AEthelbert, king of Kent (broad dates)

563                  St Columba founds Iona

566                  ‘Great Storm’ affecting eastern & mid-coasts of southern England.

?          d                      King Vortiporius

                                    King Malgo, most handsome of Britain’s rulers, drove out tyrants, mighty                                        warrior, more generous than the rest, made himself hateful to God as a                                               sodomite. Ruled whole island of Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Gotland, the                                                   Orkneys, Norway, Denmark

571                  Saxons defeat Brits — win Limbury (Bedfordshire), Aylesbury                                                                    (Buckinghamshire), Benson and Eynsham (Oxfordshire)

573                  Myrddin Wyllt, bard to Gwenddoleu (see 547) continuing the legend of The                                             Dialogue of Myrddin and Taliesin,” the conversation switches to northern                                            Britain and the Battle of Arfderydd. This is confusing both because the                                                 events hadn’t happened yet and because this version doesn’t mention the                                         major players. Myrddin asserts that at the end of the battle 140 men of                                           rank lapsed into madness and perished in the forest of Celydon. (Jarman)                                              “This battle, the subsequent assassination of Urien Rheged and the defeat                                       of the Gododdin at Catraeth are cited as reasons for the collapse of the                                          alliance of early British kingdoms in the north before the Angles, Scots,                                                 and Picts.” (Wikipedia)

575 c               migration from mainly Devon & Cornwall to Gaul, Armorica/Brittany

?                                  King Kareticus, lover of civil war, hateful to God and the Britons; Saxons                                        fetch Gormundus, king of Africans, from Ireland which he had subdued.                                                Gormundus attacks western Britain while Saxons attack eastern side and                                            Brits are in civil disarray; “‘every kingdom divided against itself shal be                                         laid waste, and house fall on house.'” Gormundus burns entirety of                                        Britain; gives Loegria to Saxons; Britons retreated to Cornwall and                                                   Wales; archbishops of London and York fled to the Welsh forests with                                           relics; priests and congregations from Loegria and Northumbria sailed to                                              Brittany

                                    “But I shall relate their story elsewhere, when I translate the book about                                           their exile.”

577                  Saxons defeat Brits at Dyrham, win Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath

580-600           several, or a succession of wet years. Also, tree-lines by this time were falling &                                       glaciers advancing.

580-614 c        Rhydderch Hael, ruler of Alt Clut, a Brittonic kingdom in the Old North of Britain


                        early Welsh Myrddin story “The Apple Trees”

                                    After death of Gwenddolau in the Battle of Arfderydd against Rhydderch,                                      Myrddin, who had been one of Gwenddolau’s warriors, wearing a torque                                           of gold, becomes a wandering madman for 50 years in the the Caldonian                                            wilds (forest of Celyddon). Welsh gwyllon = wild man. Myrddin was                                             guilty of the death of the son of Gwenddolau. Gwenddolau and his forces                                               were destroyed. Myrddin’s sister Gwenddydd no longer loves nor greets                                               him. The apple tree has the peculiar power of hiding Myrddin.

                        early Welsh Myrddin story “The Greeting” Wild man Myrddin has pigling                                                 companion.

                        Welsh Myrddin story from 9th century, “Conversation of Myrddin and his Sister                                       Gwennddyd” Myrddin prophesies in response to sister’s questions on                                               British/Welsh history from the 6th century onwards. Sister is concerned                                                 and respectful. Kings Rhydderch Hael, Morgant Fawr, and Urien are                                              mentioned.

                        Scottish versions of the wild man

                                    Jocelyn’s Life of St Kentigern has Laloicen/Lailoken the court fool or                                             jester to King Rederech (Rhydderch). Laloicen successfully prophesies his                           deaths.

                                    from the earlier Life of St Kentigern (not Jocelyn’s)

                                    Lailoken is naked, hairy madman whom Kentigern meets while praying in                                                 a wood. Lailoken has been punished by a voice from the heavens for                                       causing the deaths of many in battle. He runs away then, but much later                                                 returns to Kentigern. He asks for the sacrament because he is about to die                                      three ways.

                                    “Lailoken and Meldred” includes a story of Lailoken identiftying that the                                       queen is an adultress because of the leaf on the queen’s shawl.

                                    Lailoken and Myrddin — wild men in the woods, same historical and                                              geographical milieu, lose their reason in battle, both have burden of moral                                           guilt, madness makes both prophets, both have associations with                                                     Rhydderch — historical king mentioned in Adomnan’s Life of Saint                                                 Columba (Jarman)

586                  North Sea floods & great storm

589                  Durham: storm flood. Sea swept away villages, many drowned.

590 c               Saxons defeat Brits near Catterick

590-620 R       Raedwald, king of East Anglia (dates uncertain) Burial at Sutton Hoo?

592                  England: drought

592/593           cold winter

594      d          Gregory of Tours

594 c               Y Gododdin (in Book of Aneirin, 13th century)

                        “He thrust beyond three hundred, most bold, he cut down the centre and far wing.                        He proved worthy, leading noble men; he gave from his herd steeds for winter.                        He brought black crows to a fort’s wall, though he was not Arthur.                        He made his strength a refuge, the front line’s bulwark, Gwawrddur.”

                        Geraint character in Gododdin, composite

595      d          Owain mab Urien, King of Rheged from 590 (Taliesin), fought Bernician Angles

                                    Owain becomes hero of Welsh tale and Chretien de Troyes romance

596 +/-            Bertha, AEthelbert’s Queen, founds St Martin’s Canterbury, Roman stones

597                  St Augustine in Britain — Bede

                        start of large scale Anglo-Saxon conversion to Christianity (Bertha is Christian)

            d          St Columba in Iona

?                                  disunited Britain, British and Saxon sections divided into multiple                                                    kingdoms Anglo-Saxons own enclaves around Britain, as do the Brits, so                                 less unity

                                    parallel kingdoms

                                    Augustine is sent from Pope Gregory in Rome to the English, who had                                             destroyed Christianity in their sections of Britain; Augustine found a                                         flourishing church in Wales which had no intention of subjugating itself                                         to the new Christianity of the English.

                                    British monks gather in Leicester to pray for salvation for their people;                                          English slaughter 1,200 monks in 1 day. British chiefs with Caduan as                                              their leader combine to fight English led by Edelfridus and end with an                                                 agreement with the Humber as the boundary.

                                    Elfridus dumps pregnant wife who flees to Caduan’s court. Baby boy born                                       named Edwinus. Caduan’s son born called Caduallo. Boys grow up in                                                  court of Salomon, king of the Armorican Bretons. Later, they rule their                                               fathers’ kingdoms. Caduallo wears crown. Edwinus wants to wear crown,                                       too. Caduallo’s nephew Brianus objects. Edwinus and Caduallo argue and                                   fight. Edwinus stronger because his augur, Pellitus, reads birds’ flights                                             and stars’ movements, so knows impending set-backs. Caduallo flees,                                             despairs, unknowingly eats Brianus’ flesh. Caduallo ends up in Brittany.                                           Salomon speaks of Britons’ weakness. Caduallo points out that                                                   conquering rulers took the soldiers and leaders of Britain away. Brianus                                         sneaks into England, kills Pellitus, connects British leaders, sends                                         messages to Caduallo who arrives just when King Peanda of Mercia is                                          attacking Brianus. Caduallo defeats and captures Peanda. At Hedfield                                            battle   Edwinus and almost are his men are killed. Caduallo intends to                                             wipe out the Saxons. Oswald is the next Saxon King of Northumbria.                                                   Attacked by Peanda (now on Caduallo’s side) at Hevenfeld “field of                                               heaven,” Oswald raises Lord’s cross and entreats God for help. God                                                helps. But Caduallo rages, Peanda attacks the holy king Oswald again,                                         and Peanda kills Oswald. Oswald’s bro Oswi, next of king of                                                           Northumbria, gives gifts to Caduallo and becomes his subject. Peanda                                            gets Oswald’s permission to attack Oswi, Oswi calls on God, Peanda dies                                      in the next battle. Peanda’s son, next king of Mercia, wants to fight Oswi                                       of Northumbria, but Oswald forbids it.

            d                      King Caduallo, after ruling 48 years, body places in bronze effigy on                                                horseback on London’s western gate Church of St Martin built beneath it.

during 500s     “The medieval Welsh tradition of prophecy sprang from memories of the struggle                                                 of the Britons and the English for supremacy in the 5th and 6th centuries.”                                           (Jarmon)

                        Obscure Welsh figure with prophetic powers will become Merlin

                                    King Cadualadrus (Bede calls Chedualla the Younger), rules well for 12                                          years

                                      grows ill, civil strife

                                      “A most terrible and notorious famine” “in no region could be found the                                         sustenance of any food”

                                      “after the famine came a deadly plague, which killed more people than                                           the living could bury.”

                                      “The wretched survivors, leaving the country in crowds, headed                                                      overseas”

                                      The king also heads to King Alan of Armorica, sees retribution from God                                      for foolishness

                                      Britain, empty of people except for a few in Wales, was hateful to                                                  Britons and unwelcoming to Saxons who were also dying

                                    When Saxons feel better, they call home for hordes to move to England

                                    “This marked the end of British power in the island and the beginning of                                        English rule.”             

                                    Geoffrey makes Anglo-Saxons flat characters in contrast to other histories                                       which make the Brits flat characters

                                    King Cadualadrus remembers Britain and plans to go back, but angelic                                            voice says God does not want the Britons to rule over Britain any more,                                               “until the time came which Merlin had foretold to Arthur.. . Cadualadrus                                          was to go to Pope Sergius in Rome,” do penance, become a saint.                                                   “Through his blessing the British people would one day recover the                                          island. .. but that this would not happen before the British removed                                                Cadualadrus’ body from Rome and brought it to Britain; only then would                                       they recover their lost kingdom, after the discovery of the bodies of the                                        other saints which had been hidden from the invading pagans.”

                                    King Alan pulls out books of prophesies which corroborate the voice.

                                    Cadwaladr’s son Yvor and nephew Yni rule remnants of Brits for 69 years;                                      God no longer wants Brits to rule; “As their culture ebbed, they were no                                         longer called Britons, but Welsh”

                                    “The Saxons acted more wisely, living in peace and harmony, tilling the                                          fields and rebuilding the cities and towns; thus, with British lordship                                        overthrown, they came to rule all Loegria, led by Athelstan, who was the                                       first of them to wear its crown. The Welsh, unworthy successors of the                                           noble Britons, never again recovered mastery over the whole island, but,                                       squabbling pettily among themselves and sometimes with the Saxons,                                                   kept constantly massacring the foreigners or themselves.”

689                              King Cadualadrus dies in Rome                                

600 c               Geraint, son of Erbin. “Geraint’s father was said to be Erbin, a herder of sheep,                                          and according to Culhwch and Olwen, he had brothers named Ermind and                                            Dywel. A ‘Geraint of the South’ appears at the Battle of Catraeth (circa                                                 600) in the 14th-century poem Y Goddodin, attributed to Aneirin. Geraint                                      was one of the “Three Seafarers of the Isle of Britain” according to the                                           Welsh Triads.

                                    “The Elegy for Geraint is a sixth century poem found in the Black Book of                                                 Carmarthen, in praise of Geraint, a Dumnonian king, who fell during the                                         conflict with the Saxons. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says: ‘Port and his                                                 two sons, Bieda and Maegla, came to Britain at the place called                                                      Portsmouth, and slew a young Welshman, a very noble man.’ Scholars                                        believe that the Llongborth mentioned in the poem is, in fact, the                                                       Portsmouth of the Chronicle entry and that Geraint is the ‘young                                                     Welshman’ who was killed there. However, other locations have also been                                            suggested. Hypotheses about the location of the battle range from                                                      Somerset, bordering Dumnonia, to as far north as Kingdom of Strathclyde.

                                    “His deeds at the Battle of Llongborth are celebrated in the poem ‘Geraint                                     son of Erbin’, written probably in the 10th or 11th century, and                                                      traditionally attributed to Llywarch Hen. The later, historical Geraint of                                                 Dumnonia (d. 710) may be identified as the real warrior eulogized in                                              connection with the Battle of Llongborth in the poem, despite its title.                                         Bryce identifies Llongborth with the 710 battle between that Geraint and                                          Saxon leader Ine of Wessex. Strathclyde had rulers named Geraint and                                           Erbin/Elfin in the same era, and was also known as Damnonia, after the                                              Dumnonii tribe of the area in Romano-British times, and thus easily                                       confused with Dumnonia/Devon.

                                    “He is possibly most famous as the protagonist in the Welsh tale Geraint                                       and Enid, where he becomes the lover of Enid. Geraint and Enid is one of                                             the three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion. Its story                                        closely parallels the French writer Chretien de Troyes’ Eric and Enide.                                           Some scholars feel both works derived from a common lost source, but                                     most believe the Welsh version derives directly or indirectly from                                                 Chrétien. In this case, the renowned figure of Geraint would have been                                          added to the story to suit Welsh audiences unfamiliar with Chrétien’s                                       protagonist, Eric.” (Wikipedia)

600s                Teliesin, a contemporary of Aneirin, was said to have been bard to King Arthur                                         himself. His poem “The Chair Of The Sovereign” makes reference to                                                 “Arthur the Blessed”. Another of Teliesin’s works, Preiddeu Annwn,                                                 mentions the warrior’s valour. (Wikipedia?)

                                    “And before the door of hell lamps burned. / And when we went with                                             Arthur, brilliant difficulty, / except seven none rose up from the Fortress                                               of Mead-Drunkenness.” “Beyond the Glass Fortress they did not see the                                                 valor of Arthur. / Six thousand men stood upon the wall. / It was difficult                                       to speak with their sentinel. / Three fullnesses of Prydwen went with                                         Arthur. / Except seven none rose up from the Fortress of Guts                                                         (Hindrance?).” “And when we went with Arthur, sorrowful strife, / except                                     seven none rose up from the Fortress of Enclosedness.” Sarah Higley,                                        translator

                                    “Journey To Deganwy” remembers a time “at the battle of Badon with                                           Arthur, chief giver of feasts, with his tall blades red from the battle which                                     all men remember.” (Book of Taliesin 14th c)

                        Chronicle of Fredegar, Frankish written in Burgundy

                                    Francion constructs a New Troy on banks of Rhine

                        Staffordshire Hoard buried

600s                echtra, Old Irish pagan tales of a hero’s adventures sailing to the Otherworld

                        church of St Cadoc in Monmouth, southernmost part of Ergyng

602                  cathedral at Canterbury, under Augustine’s aegis, monastery too

603                  AEthelfrith, king of Northumbria, defeats Aedan, king of the Scots/Dalriada

603-612 d        St. Kentigern (Mungo)

604      b          Oswald, son of AEthelfrith

                        England: severe frost. Scotland: 4 months frost

605                  great heat

616      d          AEthelberht, first Christian king of Kent, writes laws in Old English

            d          AEthelfrith, king of Northumbria

                        King Eochaid mac Aedan of Dalriada accepts exiles Oswald and siblings (AEbbe)

                                    they stay 17 years, convert on Iona, fight for Irish kings

                                    (Dalriada started in Ireland, became sandwiched Ireland/Scotland)

616-632 R       Edwin, King of Northumbria (formerly Edwin of Deira)

620      b          St Cedd, bro is St Chad, mixed Celtic.Anglo.Saxon heritage

625                  Paulinus in York

            R         Cadwallon ap Cadfan, king of Gwynedd who, as the King of the Britons,                                       “conquered the Kingdom of Northumbria, killing King Edwin. He was the last                            Briton to hold substantial territory in eastern Britain until the rise of the Tudors.                                     He was therafter remembered as a national hero by the Britons and as a tyrant by                          the Anglo-Saxons of Northumbria.” (Wikipedia) In Welsh poetry and triands.

630c                Thames floods in London

632                  first cathedral at York = mix Irish, A-S, Gaulish, and some Roman

634      b          St Cuthbert

            b          St Wilfrid of York

                        Ulster: snow killed many

635                  Lindisfarne cathedral “hewn oak thatched w/reeds after the Irish manner”

                        Oswald elected King of Bernicia

            R         Oswald defeats/kill Cadwallon, becomes king of Britons, Mercia, and Deira

                        therefore, Oswald is King of Picts, Scots, and all northern Britain

                        Aidan to Lindisfarne; he was requested by Oswald to convert Angles

635                  St. Birinus builds church at Saxon settlement in to Cufa’s Wood (Cowley),                                     Oxfordshire. Became part of estates of Bishop Odo of Bayeux, then Roger d’Ivry,                                    then Robert D’Oilly. The Norman church dates to around 1130. When D’Oilly’s St                  George in Oxford Castle was given to Osney Abbey, St James the Apostle Church                        of Cowley was also transferred.

636c    b          St. Etheldreda (AEthelthryth): East Anglian princess; Fenland & Northumbrian                                         Queen, abbess of Ely, Anglo-Saxon saint

637                  Oswald dominates Dalraida in order to keep out the Irish

                        Battle of Moira, Mag Rath (historical)

                        Irish version of wild man, wild man = gelt    condition of being wild = geltacht

                                    Before the battle, Suibhe kills one of St. Ronan’s clerics and threw St.                                            Ronan’s psalter into a lake. Becomes wild man with power of levitation                                      which he uses to perch in yew trees. Sweeney Astray  Seamus Heaney

                                    The battle is Congal, King of Ulster’s rebellion against the High King.                                            The High King defeats Congal. Suibhe, Congal’s vassal, becomes mad,                                            fleeing the battle into the woods.

                                    “The Frenzy of Suibhe” continues the tale, much like Myrddin at the                                              Battle of Arfderydd.

                                    References date Suibhe to the 9th century. (Jarman)

640s                cold years noted

640-709           Aldhelm dates. In a letter to Geraint, British king of Domnonia, he “lamented …                                        that the bishops of Dyfed (South Wales) went so far as to refuse even to                                              eat with the Saxon clergy; they ordered that the plates and cups shared in                                             the refectory be ‘purified with grains of sandy gravel, or with the dusky                                          cinders of ash.'” Curley, 36, context: Saxons descended from pagans

640-642           Eormanred, King of Kent disappears from political scene

642      d          Domnall mac Aed, King of the Northern Ui Neill & High King of Ireland (Jan)

            d          Oswald, King of Bernicia & pretty much High King of England (Aug)

                                    in tales he is Conaire King of Tara (martial prowess)

                                    becomes first Anglo-Saxon saint with more than family cult

            d          King Cynegils of Wessex

            d          King Bridei son of Wid of Pictland

            d          Domnall Brecc, King of Dalriada (Dec)

                        Penda of Mercia is the dominant king who rises from the power vacuum

641-670 R       Oswiu, King of Northumbria

650 +/- b         St. Frithuswith: saint, princess, abbess

651      d          Aidan of Lindisfarne

650-700           Book of Durrow (Durrow Abbey, Ireland, or Lindisfarne)

654                  St Peters Chapel, Bradwell-on-Wall, St Chad built on Roman Ruin

655-682 R       Cadwaladr — Cadwaladr’s name is invoked in a number of literary works such as                                       in the Armes Prydein, an early 10th-century prophetic poem from the                                      Book of Taleisin. While the poem’s “Cadwaladr” is an emblematic figure,                                     scholars have taken the view that the Cadwaladr of Armes Prydein refers                                       to the historical son of Cadwallon, and that already at this stage he “played                         a messianic role” of some sort, but “its precise nature remains uncertain”.                                       He is typically paired with Conan Meriodoc, the founder of British                                                             settlements in Brittany. Conan and Cadwaladr are identified as warriors                                        who will return to restore British power. Armes Prydein states that “the                                              British shall be without their kingdom for many years and remain weak,                                         until Conan in his chariot arrive from Brittany, and that revered leader of                                               the Welsh, Cadwaladr.” Another poem states “Spendour of Cadwaladr,                                     shining and bright, defence of armies in desolate places. Truly he will                                            come across the waves, the promise of prophecy in the beginning.”                                             According to Elissa R. Henken, Cadwaladr was well established as a                                          “prophesied deliverer” of the Britons before Geoffrey’s version of his life                                       altered its ending. This may be because he was seen as the man who                                        would carry forward the achievement of his father Cadwallon, the last                                                 great war leader of the Britons: “it is quite likely that the father and son                                          became confused in folk memory, a fusion enhanced by Cadwaladr, whose                                 name is a compound meaning ‘battle-leader’, also having assumed his                                                 father’s epithet Bendigaid (Blessed).” (Wikipedia)

660-670s         Wilfrid’s churches at Chichester, Ripon, Hexham, craftsmen from Italy & Gaul

664                  Synod of Whitby — calendar of utmost importance

            d          St Chad of plague

            May 1  solar eclipse

                        Yellow Plague hits England/Ireland for 20 years (Bede, Tigernach, Adomnen)

666 c               Barking Abbey founded by Saint Erkenwald for his sister Saint Ethelburga

                                    he founded Chertsey Abbey for men

669                  St Wilfred of Ripon brings singing master from Kent, Stephen, to teach chant.                                           (see 709)

672                  Council of Hertford, 1st general council of the Anglo-Saxon church

673                  St. Etheldreda establishes double monastery at Ely

671      b          Bede

674                  St Peters Church, Wearmouth and Jarrow

675                  Escomb Saxon Church

            b          St Boniface in Devon; active in Germania as missionary (Leoba)

679      d          St. Etheldreda

679-681           St Wilfrid’s Drought; southern England, lasted 3 years until broken on the day                                           Bishop Wilfrid converts the South Saxons to Christianity (i.e., converted                                           the King).

680                  St Peters Brixworth

684                  Ireland: so cold that lakes, rivers, and sea freeze

685                  Picts, Scots, and Northern Britons gain independence from Northumbria

685-689           ‘Bloody Rain’ maybe carrying volcanic dust; Vesuvius and Etna are thought to be                                      have been very active in 685

688-726           King Ine of Wessex, wrote laws

689      d          Cadwaladr recorded in Bede

                                    HRB: Going forward, Brits are called Welsh, both Welsh & Anglo-Saxons                                      are                                         fragmented

                                    Eventually, Anglo-Saxons become civilized

693                  Ireland: flooding due to heavy/prolonged rainfall. Leinster rivers flood for 3 days                                      and nights.

694/5 or 695/6 Thames freezes for 6 weeks. Booths built on the thick ice.

697                  St Abdomnen Vita Columbae Life of Columba

700s                immram, Irish tale of hero’s sea journey to the Otherworld; include Christian                                             thinking with elements of pagan Irish mythology; hero’s faith is                                                            challenged — Voyage of St Brendan tale grew from this genre

709      d          St Wilfrid — soon after, his follower Stephen writes Vita Sancti Wilfrithi which is                                      written as a chronology of Wilfred’s life, so includes items like a                                                            description of the foundation of Hexham Abbey and of the Synod of                                                 Whitby (Bede) (see 669)

            d          Abbot Aldhelm of Malmesbury, 1st teacher was Irish scholar; Malmesbury was                                        then a British town; 2nd teacher was North African Hadrian, abbot of St                                            Augustine’s at Canterbury. Wrote in a hermeneutic Latin (influenced by                                                 the Irish). Wrote much, including Aenigmata, hexametrical riddles. He                                           popularized riddles in Britain.

710                  Geruntius, King of Domnonia, corresponded with Aldhelm, fought against West                                       Saxons, Geraint composite

715-720           Lindisfarne Gospels

716      R         AEthelbald in Mercia

                        Abbot Ceolfrith of Wearmouth-Jarrow took his scriptorium’s finest copy of a                                             single-volume Bible to Rome. Codex Amiatinus

721 or 722       Wales: very hot summer

725-775           Vespasian Psalter, southern England (Canterbury?), gloss in Old English

727      d          Frithuswith (Frideswide), buried in her abbey in Oxford

                                    William of Malmesbury among others recounts her miracle story

                        Liber historiae Francorum, history of Franks back to Priam and Antenor

731                  Bede’s History of the English Church and People  Geoffrey uses

734                  Bede writes Epistola ad Ecgberhtum episcopum to Ecgbert of York; warns                                                Ecgbert about York diocese being too large; tells him to study Gregory the                                 Great’s Pastoral Care and to study Aidan and Cuthbert as model bishops.

735      d          Bede

            b          Alcuin in York, scholar and teacher in York then in Charlemagne’s court

                                    uses term scriptorium

                        Ecgbert establishes archdiocese of York, son of Eata, Ecgbert meets Bede, founds                                     school for training both the religious and for the sons of nobles

                                    writes Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis, legal code for clergy

737                  London/South: great drought

737-758           Eadberht, king of Northumbria, son of Eata, bro of Archbishop Ecgbert

738                  Scotland flood: 400 families drowned in Glasgow

742-48 b          Charlemagne, April 2nd

744-748           One winter a great snow destroys herds in Ireland

754      d          St Boniface

757      R         Offa in Mercia

759 or 760       cold winter

763-764           severe winter followed by long and terrible drought; some sources note great                                             snow with intense frost

766      d          Archbishop Ecgbert of York

768-840           Vicariate of Dol part of Diocese of Aleth

770-800           period of higher frequency of cold winters; fits the idea that Scandinavian                                                  exploration/raids are assisted by lack of ‘westerly-storminess’

771-775 b        Ecgberht, son of Ealhmund of Kent

778                  Battle of Roncevaux Pass (basis for Song of Roland)

            b          Louis the Pious

780s                Alcuin to Charlemagne’s court; fond of riddles, beloved teacher, ends up at Tours,                         removes (his) library from York, which is for the better because York is attacked                                by Vikings; invents Carolingian minuscule; writes many treatises and many                                     letters; Carolingian renaissance; In Praise of the Psalms

793                  Lindisfarne attacked by Vikings

796      d          Offa of Mercia

798                  Ireland: snow; men and animals die

800 +/-            The Ruthwell Cross

                        Book of Kells, Columban monastery

800s                Century of Celtic heroes, Alfred the Great’s predecessors and contemporaries:

                                    Salomon in Brittany (and Nominee previously) R 857-874

                                    Kenneth (Cinead) mac Ailpin in Scotland R 843-858

                                    Rhodri Mawr in Wales R 844 to 873/877

                                    Mael Sechnaill mac Mael Ruanaid in Ireland R 845-862

                                    all shared a Viking problem

                                    all knew of Charlemagne R 768-814

                                    all were remembered as significant ancestors

                                    hero rulers

                                    Brittany = establishment of government

                                    Scotland = “origin” of eventual, larger kingdom of Scotland

                                    Ireland = an ideal or model of what later kings could emulate

                                    Wales = not so much

                                    Wessex, Brittany = about same size, Scotland = a little smaller

                                    Ireland = much bigger, Wales = much smaller

                                    King Alfred R 871-899

                        “… in a sense Breton and Irish rulers belonged to the same courtly world as that of                                    the West Saxons. Just as Alfred travelled to Rome and went to the court of                             Charles the Bald, subsequently sending for continental scholars for his                                           court, Breton and Irish rulers has comparable diplomatic and scholarly                                           exchanges.” (Davies)

                        “Both Louis the Pious and Charles [the Bald] patronized leading Breton                                                     monasteries such as Landévennoc and Redon, with a notable consequent                                                impact on their scholarly culture: most notable of all, Carolingian                                                     minuscule quickly replaced characteristically Insular forms of writing in                                        Brittany, but favorite Carolingian authors were also copied and                                                       Carolingian-preferred texts of the Bible and the liturgy were adopted.”                                                (Davies)

800c                Eve of Christmas gale destroys cities. The first recorded one of a series of storm                                        floods. ( quotes Lamb)

800c    b          Nominoë, perhaps a count of Vannes, definitely a raider by nature

                                    benefactor of and buried at abbey in Redon Abbey

800-825           Book of Nunnaminster: owned by Ealhswith, wife of King Alfred, founder of St                                       Mary’s nunnery at Winchester, known as Nunnaminster

                                    feminine word endings included, as the readers were women

802      R         Ecgberht, King of Wessex, son of Ealhmund of Kent

                        Wilton Abbey, founded by Ecgberht, St Alburga (Ecgberht’s sister) 1st Abbess

804                  St Mary’s Deerhurst already in existence

            d          Alcuin, May 19

March 17         Ireland: tornado (?), thunder, wind, lightning: 1010 men killed       

813-71             versions of the name “Merthin” appear in Cartulary of Redon, Brittany, inc                                                Merthinhael (Merthin + ‘hael’ ‘noble’), Mertinhiarn, Mertinoharnus                                                     (Merthin + ‘hoiarn’ ‘iron’ or ‘weapon’)

814      d          Charlemagne, January 28

            R         Louis the Pious, emperor

817-818           Christmas Day: Ireland: snow; many rivers and lakes frozen until February 22nd.                                      “There was abnormal ice and much snow from the Epiphany to                                                            Shrovetide. The Boyne and other rivers were crossed dry-footed; lakes                                                 likewise. Herds and hunting-parties were on Loch Neagh, and wild deer                                         were hunted. The materials for an oratory were afterwards brought by a                                              large company from the lands of Connacht over Upper and Lower Loch                                        Erne into Leinster; and other unusual things were done in the frost and                                           hail.” (

821-822           severe winter

827                  Thames is frozen for 9 weeks

829                  Ecgberht conquers both Mercia and Northumbria

829-830           Historia Brittonum (once thought to be by Nennius)

                                    Arthur as war leader (dux bellorum), 12 battles ending at Badon

                                    mentions Merlin and Ambrosius Aurelianus

                                    Mirabilia — catalogues to help remember — numbers 12 and 13

                                    “There is another wonder in the country called Builth. There is a heap of                                        stones there, and one of the stones placed on top of the pile has the                                                          footprint of a dog on it. When he hunted Twrch Trwyth Cafal, the warrior                                                Arthur’s hound, impressed his footprint on the stone, and Arthur later                                             brought together the pile of stones, under the stone in which was his dog’s                                       footprint, and it is called Carn Cafal. Men come and take the stone in their                                             hands for the space of a day and a night, and on the morrow it is found                                           upon the stone pile.”

                                    “There is another wonder in the country called Ergyng. There is a tomb                                          there by a spring, called Llygad Amr; the name of the man who is buried                                           in the tomb was Amr. He was a son of the warrior Arthur, and he killed                                                 him there and buried him. Men come to measure the tomb, and it is                                                sometimes six feet long, sometimes nine, sometimes twelve, sometimes                                                fifteen. At whatever measure you measure it on one occasion, you never                                            find it again of the same measure, and I have tried it myself.”

                        already a vernacular poetic tradition and a slew of Arthur stories existed

831      d          Morman, king of the Bretons

                        Louis the Pious appoints Nominoë Duke of Brittany; doesn’t invest him as duke

831-1144         versions of the name “Arthur” appear in Cartulary of Redon, Brittany, inc                                                 Arthbiu, Arthuiu, Arthuueo, Arthmael, Armael, Armel, Arthnou,                                                         Arthuuiu, Arthuuio, Arthuuuio, Arthuuolou

836c    b          Aethelberht, son of Aethelwulf, King of Wessex, & Osburh

839      d          Ecgberht

            R         Aethelwulf, son of Ecgberht, King of Wessex

840      d          Louis the Pious

840-857c         Festianus (Festgen) 1st Bishop of Dol, appointed by Nominoë

843-877 R       Charles the Bald, King of West Francia (from 875 emperor and king of Italy)

843                  Battle of Blain, Erispoe, Nominoë’s son, makes up for defeat at Messac with                                              destruction of Renaud and his troops; possibly helped by Vikings

                                    Vikings may only have arrived afterwards for scavenging

844-845           great ice and frost until January 7th; rivers and lakes freeze. Ireland: “much ice                                          and frost so that the principal lakes and rivers of Ireland could be crossed                                               by people on foot and on horse-back from the ninth of the kalends of                                           December to the seventh of the ides of January” (Annals of Ulster)

844, 847                      Nominoë fights Vikings

845                  Battle of Ballon, Nominoë defeats Charles the Bald’s forces by using light cavalry                                     against 3,000 soldiers in treacherous Breton wetlands

846                  treaty bet Nominoë and Charles the Bald; perhaps given title of Duke

846c    b          Rollo, chieftain of the Norse in Normandy

847c    b          Aethelred, son of Aethelwulf, King of Wessex, & Osburga

849      b          Alfred of Wessex, son of Aethelwulf king of Wessex & Osburh

before 850       Nominoë wants to become king: Breton prelates won’t back him

                                    he petitions Pope Leo IV to dump them because of simony

                                    Leo IV decides that tribunal of bishops necessary, along with witnesses

                                                to prove that Nominoë had a right to expel prelates

                                    instead, Nominoë brutally deposes bishops of Vannes, Aleth, Quimper,                                                      and St. Pol de Léon

                                    then makes 7 dioceses out of the 4

                                    one new diocese was Dol with the seat of an archbishop

                                    also monasteries of St Brieuc and Pabu-Tutiel (Tréguier) = 2 dioceses

850-51             Archbishops of Tours, Sens, Reims, and Rouen threaten Nomenoë with                                                     excommunication

851      d          Nominoë, 1st Duke of Brittany, “while ravaging the Nantais and Anjou”

            R         Erispoe, (Nominoë’s son, mom was Argentaela), Duke of Brittany

                        Battle of Jengland, Erispoe defeats Charles the Bald’s army which includes Saxon                                                 troops from bro Louis the German

                        “In August 851, Charles left Maine to enter Brittany by the Roman road from                                            Nantes to Corseul. The king arranged his troops in two lines: at the rear                                           were the Franks; in front were Saxon mercenaries whose role was to break                           the assault of the Breton cavalry, which was known for its mobility and                                          tenacity.

                        “In the initial engagement, a javelin assault forced Saxons to retreat behind the                                          more heavily armoured Frankish line. The Franks were taken by surprise.                                         Rather than engage in a melée, the Bretons harassed the heavily armed                                                 Franks from a distance, in a manner comparable to Parthian tactics, but                                          with javelins rather than archers. They alternated furious charges, feints,                                                and sudden withdrawals, drawing out the Franks and encircling over-                                        extended groups.        

                        “After two days of this sort of fighting, Frankish losses in men and horses were                                         mounting to catastrophic levels, while the Bretons suffered few casualties.                                          With his force disintegrating, Charles withdrew from the field during the                                           night. When his disappearance was noticed the following morning, panic                                       seized the Frankish soldiers. The Bretons quickly raided the camp, taking                                              booty and weapons and killing as many fugitives as they could.”                                                             (wikipedia)                 

                        Treaty of Angers, Erispoe submits to Charles the Bald; Charles makes Erispoe                                          king; creates borders that stuck through duchy to province of Brittany

851 or 856       Charles the Bald stands as godfather at baptism of Erispoe’s son Conan

?          m         Erispoe and Marmohec’s daughter and Gurvand of Rennes

851                  Vikings winter in Thanet, attack London and Canterbury

852      b          Ealhswith, wife of Alfred the Great. Father was Mercian noble, mother AElthryth                                     countess of Flanders

852                  Salomon, son of Riwallon III of Poher and cousin of Erispoe, becomes fidelis of                                        Charles the Bald, receives lands (by fee from Charles) that Erispoe had                                                 won in 851; Salomon the most powerful aristocrat under Erispoe

854                  versions of “Lailoken” appear in Cartulary of Redon, Brittany, inc Lalocan,                                               Lolocan, Lalocon

856                  Ireland: gale; great wind; woods felled

857      d          Erispoe assassinated at church altar by cousin and successor Salomon                                                        Erispoe was benefactor of and buried at Redon Abbey

            R         Salomon, in same raider mode, back and forth with Carolingians

858      d          Aethelwulf

            R         Aethelbald, King of Wessex, son of Aethelwulf & Osburh

859-860           severe winter in England

860      d          Aethelbald

            R         Aethelberht, King of Wessex

861-78             name “Arthur” appears 6 times in Cartulary of Redon, Brittany

862                  Salomon hires Viking mercenaries when he fights Robert the Strong who also has                                     Viking mercenaries; Salomon lends Breton soldiers to Louis the                                                   Stammerer against whom Salomon has recently rebelled     

mid 860s         Salomon tries to convince Pope Nicholas I to send palium to Bishop of Dol

863      d          St Swithun, bishop of Winchester

865      d          Aethelberht

            R         Aethelred, King of Wessex

            d          Aethelred

                        Great Danish army lands in East Anglia

866-867           Danes attack Northumbria

867-868           Danes move into Mercia

867-874           Salomon signs treaties with Charles the Bald; stands godfather to Salomon’s son

869      d          Edward the martyr, king of East Anglia

870                  Viking invasion: St. Etheldreda’s monastery destroyed

870      b          AEthelflaed, lady of the Mercians, daughter of King Alfred & Ealhswith,

                                    married AEthelred, Lord of the Mercians

870s    b          AEthelgifu, daughter of King Alfred & Ealhswith                           

871      R         King Alfred the Great

                        Danes defeated at Ashdown

                        Alfred promotes learning and the English language

                        Alfred Jewel

873-874           cold winter, especially in Scotland; great frost from November to April; thaw                                            brought floods

874      d          Salomon killed by son-in-law Pacsweten, Wrhwant, and Wigo; then, they fight

                        over time Salomon raised to saint, then martyr “in popular tradition”

874c    b          Edward the Elder, son of Alfred & Ealhswith

876      R         Alan I, king of Brittany (by emperor), Pascweten’s nephew, Count of Vannes                                 begins reign holding southeastern Brittany while Judicael of Poher holds                                              western Brittany; eventually combine to fight Vikings

880      b          AEthelweard, son of Alfred the Great & Ealhswith; sent to a schola, learned to                                          read and write Latin and Old English and instructed in liberal arts.

                                    Great landowner.

880-881           cold winter

880-948           Hywel Dda, king of Deheubarth and later most of Wales, called King of the                                   Britons in Annales Cambriae and the Annals of Ulster. Codified the oral law                            code, Cyfraith Hywel. These laws sometimes resemble the Brehon laws of Ireland                         and/or the laws in Strathclyde. The laws emphasized the responsibility of kindreds                        over their members; gavelkind inheritance of land — between all male                                              descendents; galanas status-based system of blood money; slavery and serfdom;                                  foreigners couldn’t naturalize before 4th generation; divorce and legitimacy rules                          that seemed lax to western Christians. (wikipedia)

887-888           Judicael dies in Battle of Questembert

890                  Alan defeats Vikings at St Lo

                        Alan I spends reign fighting Viking invasions; killed in one

890 c               King Alfred founds Shaftesbury Abbey; daughter AEthelgifu first abbess

892 Nov 11     Ireland: gale; many trees and houses fall                  

893      m         Edward the Elder & Acgwynn

            b          William Longsword, son of Rollo & Poppa of Bayeux

                        Life of King Alfred by Asser, a priest from Wales

893-898 m       Aelfthryth, daughter of King Alfred & Ealhswith, & Baldwin II of Flanders

894c    b          Aethelstan, son of Edward the Elder & Ecgwynn

899      d          King Alfred the Great

            R         Edward the Elder

                                    educated with sister AElfthryth at court, male & female tutors, reads                                                psalms and Old English poems in English,

                                      taught courtly qualities of gentleness & humility                                                                            defends claim to throne against cousin who allies with Danes                                                 works with his sister AEthelflaed who represents the Mercians                                                        constant fighting against Danes and Norse; pretty successful                                                           coinage increases dramatically

                        Ealhswith, Edward’s mom, founds Nunnaminster (abbey of St Mary,                                                          Winchester)

900s                in Welsh literature, Myrddin speaks for Dyfed, legend of Battle of Arfderydd has                                      developed, legend of Lailoken has migrated to Wales

900      m         Edward the Elder & Aelfflaed

901                  Edward founds New Minster at Westminster

                                    relics of the Breton Saint Judoc

                                    Grimbald’s body, one of Alfred’s closest advisors

900s                Exeter Book written (see 1072)

902      d          Ealhswith, wife of Alfred the Great; Edward buries her at New Minster and

                                    moves his father’s body there

907      d          Alan I, King of Brittany (the Great); dies fighting Vikings                          

            R         Gourmaëlon, count of Cornouaille, de facto ruler of Brittany

908                  first visit of Archbishop of Canterbury to Pope in almost a century

                        most English rivers freeze for 2 months

909                  relics of St Oswald taken from Northumbria and translated to Gloucester minster

910-930           extended droughts with regularity; summer half-years are warm or very warm                                           more often than not — some notably hot summers

911                  Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte bet Charles the Simple and Rollo after Rollo’s                                             defeat. “The treaty granted Rollo and his soldiers all the land between the                                              river Epte and the sea ‘in freehold and good money.’ In addition, it granted                                                him Brittany ‘for his livelihood.'” “In exchange, Rollo guaranteed the king                                     his loyalty, which involved military assistance for the protection of the                                     kingdom against other Vikings. One of the conditions for the Vikings after                           their loss was to convert. As a token of his goodwill, Rollo also agreed to                                       be baptized and to marry Gisela, a daughter of Charles.”

            R         Rollo chieftain of the Norse

            d          Aethelred of Mercia, Aelfthryth’s husband, she continues to rule Mercia after his                                       death with bro, Edward the Elder, ruler of Wessex and East Anglia

912-913           severe winter

914-938           turmoil in Brittany due to Vikings; interregnum

                        Alan I’s son-in-law Methuedoi and his son Alan flee to Edward the Elder;                                                  Athelstan stands godfather at Alan’s baptism

                                    Alan the son befriends King Louis IV of France also in exile at Edw                                               Elder/Athelstan’s courts

914c    d          Gourmaëlon

917                  Ireland: severe winter, great snow

918      m         Eadgifu, dau of Edw Elder & Aelfflaed, & Charles the Simple, King of W. Franks

919      m         Edward the Elder & Eadgifu

920+/-             MacDurnan Gospels made at Armagh, given to Aethelstan while he is king

922      d          AEthelweard, buried at Winchester

923                  Thames freezes for 13 weeks. May be 928 or 929

924      R         Aethelstan — first king of Britain

                        Aethelstan, Anglo-Saxon, unifies the country, earning pre-eminence over                                       Welsh/country strong central governmentHRB — Geoffrey doesn’t count                                      territorial control as dominion (none agree with him on this)

                        Giver: donated many books and fine objects

926      m         Edith, dau of Edward the Elder & Ecgwynn, & Sihtric Viking King of York

            m         Eadhild, dau of Edw the Elder & Aelfflaed, & Hugh the Great, King of Franks

927      R         William Longsword, Count of Rouen (born in Normandy)

                        cold winter

929-930 m       Eadgyth, dau of Edw the Elder & Aelfflaed, & Otto I, King of East Franks

                                    later, Holy Roman Emperor (after her death)

930                  prophet Mirtin in Armes Prydein

930c    d          Rollo, Chieftain of the Norse

            R         William Longsword, Chieftain of the Norse

932      b          Richard I, the Fearless, son of William Longsword & Sprota (captive)

932      d          Rollo

939-940           cold winter

930-960           Junius MS of Anglo-Saxon religious poetry written

933                  Raoul, King of Western Francia, gives much of Brittany to William Longsword;                           Alan II and Count Berengar of Rennes resist, but their castles are destroyed. Alan                           II flees to Britain and Count Berengar seeks reconciliation

935      m         William Longsword and Luitgarde, dau of Count Herbert II of Vermandois

            m         Longsword’s sis Adela (Gerloc) and William, Count of Poitou

936      d          King Raoul of Western Francia

            R         King Louis IV

                        Alan II lands at Dol

937                  Battle of Brunanburh

                                    AEthelweard’s two sons killed. Buried at Malmesbury.

                        AEthelstan faced by an alliance of his enemies. He won.

938      R         Alan II Duke of Brittany, Wrybeard/Twistedbeard/Varvek

                        grandfather = Alan I, King of Brittany

                        parents = Alan I’s daughter and Mathuedoi I, Count of Poher

                        expelled Vikings from Brittany

?                      Alan II m Adelaide of Blois, sis of Theobald II of Blois

939      d          Aethelstan, buried at Malmesbury

            R         Edmund I, son of Edw the Elder & Eadgifu

939                  Battle of Trans-la-Forêt, Alan I, with help, defeats Vikings

940                  William Longsword pledges loyalty to King Louis IV

940c    b          Eadwig, son of Edmund & Aelgifu

941                  Ireland: lakes and rivers freeze

942      d          William Longsword

            R         Richard I, Duke of Normandy

944                  severe gale/storm affected whole of England; in London 1500 houses fell

944-970+        Archbishop Wicohen (Juthuouen) of Dol, dominant figure, great temporal lord

                                    his fief of n. Rennes inherited by Main II and Hamo of Alet, sons, nephs?

946      d          Edmund I

            R         Eadred, son of Edward, King of Wessex, & Eadgifu

946-948           England: drought; “no rain for 3 years” probably marked shortage

950                  Hywel Dda, in Annales Cambriae, Welsh ruler known for law code

950-1000         Vercelli Book, including Cynewulf’s poems and “The Dream of the Rood”

950-1000         The Exeter Book

952      d          Eadburh, nun at Nunnaminster and saint

            d          Alan II of Brittany

            R         Drogo, regency (Theobald II of Blois entrusted management to) Wicohen,                                                 Archbishop of Dol and Juhel Berengar, Count of Rennes; also Fulk                                      II, Count of Anjou, who married Alan II’s widow Adelaide

955      R         Eadwig, son of  Edmund & Aelfgifu

                        Wales: hot summer

958      d          Drogo (murdered on orders of Fulk II, Count of Anjou?)

958on              interregnum; Pope John XIII sends letters to four men because there’s no ruler:                              “Juhel Béranger and his Conan, as well as Hoël and his brother Guérech”

959      d          Eadwig

            R         Edgar the Peaceful, son of Edmund I & Aelfgifu

960      R         Hoël I, Duke of Brittany, illegit son of Alan II and Judith

            b          Sweyn Forkbeard, son of Harald Bluetooth & Tove of the Obotrites

962c    b          Edgar the Martyr, son of Edgar the Peaceful & Aethelflaed or Wulfthryth

966      b          Aethelred the Unready, son of Edgar the Peaceful & Aelfthryth

                        King Edgar’s charter for New Minster, Winchester, Benedictine Reform

970s (early)     Regularis Concordia

971                  St Swithun canonized in Winchester

973      m         Conan Le Tort and Ermengarde Gerberga, dau of Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou and                         Adele of Vermandois

                        Thames floods

975-975           severe winter over whole of Europe and England

975      d          Edgar the Peaceful

            R         Edgar the Martyr

978      d          Edgar the Martyr

            R         Aethelred the Unready

980c    b          Richard II, Duke of Normandy, son of Richard I & Gunnora

980      b          Geoffrey, son of Conan and Ermengarde

981      d          Hoël I, Duke of Brittany (murdered by order of Conan Le Tort)

            R         Guérech, Duke of Brittany, illegit son of Alan II and Judith

985      b          Emma, daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy

987                  Guérech’s wife Aremburga of Ancenis built fortress Château d’Ancenis

988      d          Guérech, Duke of Brittany (poisoned by order of Conan Le Tort) buried Redon

            R         Alan II, Duke of Brittany

            d          St Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, Benedictine Reform

989      b          Edmund Ironside, son of Aethelred the Unready & Aelfgifu

990      d          Alan II, Duke of Brittany (killed by order of Conan Le Tort)          

            R         Conan I, Le Tort (the Crooked), Duke of Brittany

                        Archbishop Main II of Dol (Jukenues’s uncle) establishes barony of Fougères

                        Archbishop Main II of Dol establishes barony of Vitré

                                    1st baron Rivallon vicarius, m Junargande

                                                eldest son Triscan m Inoguen, sis of Main de Fougères

                                    Archb Jukeneus’s sis Inoguen m Teuharius/Tehel

                                                son Brient is 1st lord of Châteaubriant

990c    d          Osbern of Canterbury, monk who wrote Life of Dunstan; Osbern wrote De Res                                          Musica and De vocum consonantiis, as well as other lives and treatises

990s                extended droughts with regularity; also thought that the summer half-years were                                       warm or very warm more often than not. Some notably hot summers

991                  founding of Normandy, unclear overlordship by France

                        Battle of Maldon takes place August 11

992      d          Conan I, fighting bro-in-law Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou, Battle of Conquereuil

            R         Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany, son of Conan and Ermengarde

                        Ireland: storm surge/tempest submerged island fort in 1 hour.

995      b          Cnut, son of Sweyn Forkbeard & ??

                        summer cold throughout Europe; sever frost and ice in July

996      d          Richard I of Normandy, the Fearless

                        Wulfstan, Vita S. AEthelwoldi

                        double wedding: Geoffrey I and Hawise of Normandy (dau Richard I of                                                     Normandy, sis Richard II of Normandy

                        and Richard II of Normandy and Geoffrey’s sis Judith of Brittany

                        Viking raids continue seriously through 999

996-1015         De moribus et actis primorum Normannorum ducum by Dudo of Saint-Quentin,                                        commissioned by Duke Richard I, also know as Historia Normannorum                                           and as Gesta Normannorum

997      b          Alan III of Brittany    

998                  Thames freezes for 5 weeks              

999                  Vikings take Dol; kill Solomon the vidame

1000    b          Robert I, Duke of Normandy, son of Richard II & Judith of Brittany

1000+  b          William of Jumieges

1001    b          Earl Godwin

1002    m         Aethelred the Unready & Emma of Normandy

                        St. Brice’s Day Massacre, Nov 13, ordered by King Aethelred the Unready

                        in trade cities with Danish/Viking trade settlements

                        St. Frideswide’s abbey in Oxford destroyed in massacre

1003    b          Edward the Confessor, son of Aethelred the Unready & Emma

                        lived in Normandy 1013-1041,  reign 1042-1066

            b          Herleva, mother of William the Conqueror

1005                famine so severe in Britain that cannibalism occurred

1008    d          Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany, dies on pilgrimage to Rome

            R         Alan III of Brittany, regency: mother and her bro Richard II of Normandy

                        Jukeneus enthroned as Archbishop of Dol

                                    father Hamo viscount of Alet which bro Hamo inherited

                                    bro Josselin became 1st lord of Dinan

                                    bro Rivallon of Dol-Combourg, vidame of the archbishopric

                        Rivallon of Dol-Combourg hires knight Hato (Frankish name)

1009                Danish army sacks Oxford

1009 c             Beowulf written down

1010c              Aelfric of Eynsham uses term scriptorium

                                    Not clear how many monasteries and cathedrals had permanent space                                             allocated for copying manuscripts. In Tournai in the 11th century, monks,                                                 nuns, and clerics wrote in the cloisters of their monasteries.

1011    b          Ralph the Staller in Norfolk, Breton heritage, position under Edward the                                                    Confessor was “staller,” similar to continental constable; Wm Conq made                                         him Earl of East Anglia         

1013    R         Sweyn Forkbeard

1013-24           Knight Hato signs 2 charters with Duke Richard II of Normandy

                                    Hato representing Rivallon of Dol-Combourg’s Norman lands

1014    d          Sweyn Forkbeard

            R         Aethelred the Unready

                        St Michael’s Day Flood; major flood due to storm surge; great damage to coastal                                       communities along the English south coast; Dutch reports suggest that the                                       English side of the southern North Sea is affected (

1016    d          Aethelred the Unready

            b          Harold Harefoot, son of Cnut & Aelgifu

            R         Edmund Ironside

            d          Edmund Ironside

            R         Cnut

1017    m         Cnut & Emma of Normandy

1018    m         Alan III of Brittany and Bertha dau of Count Odo of Chartres & Blois

            b          Harthacnut, son of Cnut & Emma

1022    b          Harold Godwinson, son of Godwin Earl of Wessex & Gytha Thorkelsdottir

1026    d          Richard II, Duke of Normandy, the Good

1027    R         Robert I, Duke of Normandy, the Magnificent         

                        tensions rising with Normandy; Alan III tries to break free of Normandy

            m         Rivallon of Dol-Combourg and Aremburga de Puiset, dau of Count Evrard of                                            Bretueil also viscount of Chartres and vassal of Odo

1028    b          William, the Conqueror, son of Robert I & Herleva

1029                Duke Robert of Normandy invades Brittany at Dol; treaty made between them by                                     their great-uncle Robert, Archbishop of Rouen

1030c  b          Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, son of Herluin de Conteville & Herleva

1031    b          Matilda of Flanders, direct descendant of King Alfred the Great

            b          Robert, Count of Mortain, son of Herluin de Conteville & Herleva

1032-1033       cold winter

1035    d          Cnut

            R         Harold Harefoot

                        Robert I, Duke of Normandy, goes on pilgrimage

            d          Robert I, Duke of Normandy, dies in Nicaea

1037    d          Robert, Archbishop of Rouen, care of William, son of Robert I, to Alan III and                              Gilbert (his cousin); they try to hold Normandy and bolster William 

before 1039     Flaald, son of Hato knight of Dol, and husband of Tehel and Inoguen’s dau

                                    “Flaald was the first man to be given the important position of hereditary                                       steward of the Archbishop of Dol, the most important official in the                                           household apart from that of vidame. It is widely assumed that the post,                                         together with that of butler, was created by Junkeneus, a supposition made                                     certain because all of Juhel’s land grants were later revoked, while the                                           hereditary stewards and butlers managed to hold on to theirs.” (Fox)

1039c  d          Archbishop Junkeneus of Dol (valued by Duke Alan II of Brittany)

                        Juhel enthroned as Archbishop of Dol

                                    someone claims later that he bought the see from Duke Alan III

                                    Juhel must have come from wealthy, powerful family Rennes? Porhoët?

                                    dau 1 married knight Wihenoc, son of Caradoc

                                    dau 2 Adelaide married Main de Fougères — Main is related to                                                        (greatnephew of) Hamo I of Alet (father of Junkeneus); Main’s                                                             greatgranddaughter Godehilde marries John (grandson of Hamo of                                                 Alet/nephew of Junkeneus). John becomes Archbishop after Juhel is                                              chased out of office

1040    d          Harold Harefoot

            R         Harthacnut

            b          Rhys ap Twedwr, king of Deheubarth

1040-1115       Song of Roland written; only original survives in Bodleian

1040    d          Alan III of Brittany, Orderic Vitalis says he was poisoned by Normans

            d          Gilbert, Count of Brionne in Normandy, guardian of young duke William, killed                                       by Ralph de Wacy. Sons Richard and Gilbert flee to Flanders. Richard is                                            rewarded with Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy. Serves under William at                                 Hastings. Given 176 lordships including castles at Clare and Tonbridge.                                         Serves as Chief Justiciar under Wm Conq and plays part in ending Revolt                                          of the Earls. Richard’s son, Gilbert fitz Richard, inherits his father’s lands.                                       Richard’s children include an Abbot of Ely; Walter Lord of Nether Gwent                                      who builds Tintern Abbey; Lord of Little Dunnow; and two of his                                                          daughters marry Walter Tirel and Hugo Dapifer.

1042    d          Harthacnut

1042    R         Edward the Confessor

            b          Ralph de Gael in Hereford, inherits great barony of Gael in Brittany (see 1075)

                        son of Ralph the Staller

1043-1044       cold winter     

1045    b          Stephen Henry, Count of Blois, son of Theobald III & Garsinde du Maine

            b          Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile (son of King Edmund Ironside) born in                                        Hungary

1047                ‘worst winter in living memory;’ severe frost and heavy snow

1049                Robert made Count of Mortain; he is WmConq’s 1/2 bro, Odo’s full bro

1050                Pope Gregory VII at Council of Reims excommunicates all Breton bishops for                                          failing to respond to a papal summons; Breton refusal to Tours

                        Families respond by increasingly creating cells of abbeys outside Brittany; their                                        family priests were then communicates through Tours

                        “Duke William the bastard of Normandy saw in this situation an opportunity to                                         diminish the authority of Tours while at the same time winning for himself                             supporters in Brittany. He made common cause with Juhel, promising to                                        use his influence over the Pope in return for an alliance which protected                                         his own western borders. This strategy was highly successful, and Duke                                              William’s popularity with the Breton nobility is evidenced by the large                                                 numbers who joined in his invasion of England. According to Wace the                                         lords of Dinan, Vitré, and Fougères were all represented at Hastings. Juhel                          would have used Rivallon of Dol as his envoy to Duke William, and this                                          probably explains Rivallon’s attendance at the court of the Norman duke at                                    Dromfront in 1063-64.” (Fox)

                        Note: Many hold lands in both Normandy and Brittany, divided loyalty (Fox)

1050s              “It was the geographical position of their homelands that had brought the third                                          group of Bretons to England with William. The lands of the seigneuries of                                             Dol-Combour and Fougères looked out towards the Avranchin and the                                                county of Mortain in Normandy; some of them actually lay within these                                         areas. During the 1050s William of Normandy had been careful to compel                                               the recognition of his overlordship of this area from the Breton seigneurs                                          who held or acquired land there. Unambiguous evidence of this process is                                      provided by the charters of Ralph of Fougères’s father Main II of                                                    Fougères. ” (Keats-Rohan) “Its importance, as we shall see, is that it                                     helped to create a community of interest between the Bretons of north-east                                    Brittany and the men of western Normandy. Once we recognize the                                                interdependence of the West Normans and the marcher Bretons the pattern                                   of the English settlement after 1066 becomes much clearer. Its most                                               extreme form occurs in the settlement of Devon and Cornwall, and when                                       we compare this with the great blocks of land held in the north and east by                              Alan of Richmond-Penthiévre, William de Warenne and their affinities,                                         we are at once aware of a broad geographical division between these two                                       groups, in England as well as on the Continent.” (Keats-Rohan)

1050    d          Herleva

                        Westminster Abbey begun by Edward the Confessor

1050+              William of Jumieges continues Dudo’s De moribus et actis primorum                                                         Normannorum ducum

1051    m         William of Normandy & Matilda of Flanders

            b          Robert Curthose, oldest surviving son of William & Matilda

1052    d          Emma of Normandy

                        Bristol base for Godwin’s sons’ resistance to king

1053    d          Earl Godwin

1055                “Wihenoc, son of Caradoc of La Boussac witnesses the gift by his lord Robert de                                      Vitré of the church of Maontreuil-sur-Pérouse to the abbey of St Serge at                                       Angers. Wihenoc was probably married to Juhel’s daughter by this time,                                                 and was part of the bishop’s pro-Norman inner circle. As such he would                                         have been with Rivallon of Dol in the events of 1064-65.” (Fox)

                        Welsh raids

                        Monmouth untouched, suggesting it was a fortified Saxon burh

1056                Gruffydd ap Llywelyn with Welsh, Saxons, and Danes defeats Ralph, Earl of                                            Hereford and sacks the Saxon burh at Hereford, devastating area inc                                                Monmouth

            b          William Rufus, son of William & Matilda

            b          Cecilia, daughter of William & Matilda

                        Odda’s Chapel

1057                Edward the Exile returns to England with family. Edward the Confessor wants to                                      recognize Edward the Exile as heir. Edward the Exile dies before meeting                                      Edward the Confessor. His family stays in England, flees to Scotland after                                         Norman invasion. His children were Edgar Atheling, St. Margaret of                                              Scotland, and Christina abbess of Romney Abbey.

1057-1061 b    Constance of Normandy, daughter of William & Matilda

1060                Anselm joins Benedictine monastery at Bec, founds Scholasticism

            b          Eadmer of Canterbury, Anglo-Saxon monk, devotee of Anselm

1061                Thames freezes for 7 weeks

1063                London: severe winter

1063c  b          Alan IV of Brittany, Alan Fergan

                        Wm of Normandy completes takeover of Maine. Before 1060, relations bet                                               Brittany and Maine had been very good. Starting in 1060, Wm of                                                      Normandy attacked Maine which was held by Anjou.

1064                Wm of Normandy attacks Brittany. Bretons stick behind their Duke Conan except                                     for Rivallon of Dol who had recently made an oath to Wm based on land                                           in Ceaux of the Avranchin. Other Bretons considered Rivallon a                                                     traitor. “Many of the Bretons of SW England after 1066 had probably                                            either directly or indirectly supported Rivallon and Wm in 1064.” “The                                              hostility between the Bretons of SW England and those of the northern                                              honour of Richmond that lasted until 1154 had its origins in the events of                                       1064.” (K. Keats-Rohan) Normans lose against Bretons in 1064

                        William takes Dol (Bayeux tapestry); restores Dol to Rivallon

1064-65           Duke Conan II besieges Rivallon at Dol, Rivallon into exile

1064-82           Ricemarch Psalter made in Wales by scribe Ithael for his brother Ricemarch                                             who lived at the school at St David’s. Their father Sulien became Bishop                                              of St David’s in 1072.

1065                Conan II of Brittany besieges Rivallon I of Dol at Combourg

                        Ralph de Gael is with Conan II

1066    d          Duke Conan II, Orderic Vitalis says that “Conan’s chamberlain (Aubrey de                                                Vere?), a man who also had property in Normandy, was asked to place                                             poison on Conan’s war horn, reins, and gloves. The poison was effective                                                 after Conan touched his hand to his mouth, and he died soon afterwards.”                                      Aubrey de Vere “can be placed in the entourage of Conan on a visit to                                              Tours, had links with Normandy, participated in the conquest of England,                                              and was well rewarded by King William. Intriguingly, Henry I made                                              Aubrey II de Vere his chamberlain, supporting the possibility that the                                     father might have served Conan in the same capacity, cf. the creation of                                           Walter son of Alan fitz Flaald as seneschal of Scotland, perhaps with the                                        encouragement of Henry I of England.” (Fox)

            d          Edward the Confessor

            R         Harold Godwinson

                        Battle of Stamford Bridge

                        Battle of Hastings

                        Wigod, Saxon thegn of Wallingford, relative of Edward the Confessor, helps Wm                                                 Conq cross Thames; rewarded with lots of land which his daughter                                            Ealdgyth and her husband Robert d’Oyly inherit when Wigod dies.                                                     (c1067-1071)

                        “…After a long/dry summer, W/WNW winds prevailed in the Channel all through                                     September. It was, according to TEC/Lamb, only the breaking of this                                        anticyclonic NW’ly (ANW) spell that gave Duke William his chance to                                                 cross the Channel on the 7th October 1066 (New Style calendar).”

            R         King William I, William the Conqueror

            b          Henry, son of William & Matilda, later King Henry I, born in England

                        Walter de Lacy is a Norman who follows Wm Conq, gets lands in Herefordshire                                       and Shropshire; active on Welsh border; doesn’t give his lands to his                                        knights; one of 21 who held land worth more than 400 pounds in                                                    Domesday Book; active against the Revolt of the Earls.

1066+              William fitzOsbern 1st Earl of Hereford builds castle in Monmouth1068-1069       b          Richard, son of William & Matilda

                        Oxford is a thriving trade town, 1 thousand houses, 11 churches, smaller only than                                    London, York, Norwich, Lincoln, and Winchester. It is a meeting place                                              bet Mercia and Wessex. Under the Anglo Saxons and Danes, royal                                                 councils were held in Oxford in 1015, 1018, 1035, and 1065.

1067    b          Adela, daughter of William & Matilda

                        Hereford Castle rebuilt by William FitzOsbern, earl of Hereford

                        Monmouth Castle, William FitzOsbern

                        Chepstow Castle and Priory, William FitzOsbern

                        Ewyas Harold Castle rebuilt by William FitzOsbern around this time

                        Remigius made Bishop of Dorchester, 1st Norman, largest bishopric in England

1067-1068       cold winter

1067-1071       Wallingford Castle Robert D’Oyly

1068                Ralph the Staller and son Ralph de Gael at Wm Conq’s court

            d          Ralph the Staller, father of Ralph de Gael

1069                Robert of Mortain leads destruction of Danish force in Lindsey

1069-70           Harrowing of the North

                                    devastation and famine so severe that cannibalism occurred

                                    Marianus Scotus mentioned the cannibalism in the Universal Chronicle,                                        Mainz, before 1076; William of Malmesbury wrote that the devastation                                       was apparent in his day; Orderic Vitalis wrote that the appalling act                                                 was the only mar on the Conqueror’s record

                        Ralph de Gael overcomes Norsemen who invaded Norfolk and Norwich                                                    Ralph was created Earl of Norfolk and Suffolk (the East Angles)

1070                violent storm in the North Sea as King Sven II of Denmark returns from defeat                                          and reconciliation with Wm Conq; he takes loot from east Midlands/Fen                                          lands

                        Bayeux Tapestry sewn

                                    shows William and Harold at Mont St Michel

                                    shows a comet which indicates that William will attack England

                        Gesta Normannorum Ducum — William of Jumieges

                                    builds on Dudo of Saint Quentin (1015-1020) history (Troy legend)

                                    brings the history up to date

                        Clifford Castle

                        Wigmore Castle, William FitzOsbern                       

                        William of Dol becomes abbot of St Florent de Saumur

            m         King Malcolm III of Scotland and Margaret, dau of Edward the Exile (St.                                                  Margaret of Scotland)

1071    b          William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, the Troubador

                        Oxford Castle, Robert d’Oyly, High Sheriff of Berkshire, Lord Hocknorton, High                                      Sheriff of Oxford

1072                Exeter Book donated to Exeter Cathedral by its Bishop Leofric, the first bishop

                        Chepstow Priory founded

            d          William FitzOsborn

                        son, Roger de Breteuil inherits as 2nd Earl of Hereford

1073                Pope Gregory VII

1073-1074       severe winter

1074                Church of St. George, Oxford, college of secular canons built by Robert d’Oilly                                         and Roger d’Ivry, warrior buddies

1075    m         Emma, Roger de Breteuil’s sister to Ralf Guader, Earl of Norfork “bridal of                                               Norwich” which William the Conqueror had prohibited

                                    Revolt of the Earls Roger de Breteuil, Ralf Guader, and Waltheof 1st Earl                                                  of Northumberland v Wm the Conqueror

                                    Waltheof confesses to Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury: executed

                                    Roger de Breteuil loses his earldom and properties

                                    Ralph is chased by warrior bishops Odo of Bayeux & Geoffrey de                                                              Montbray (GofM orders prisoners’ right feet cut off)

                                                Ralph hoofs it to Denmark, returns with only small force

                                    Emma holds Norwich Castle until she can procure safe passage for                                                             everyone; she and Ralf live on her property in Brittany

            b          Orderic Vitalis, son of chaplain of Robert of Montmorency, Earl of Shrewsbury

            d          Richard, son of William & Matilda, shot in New Forest

mid 70s           Lincoln Cathedral begun, Bishop Remigius moves from Dorcester to Lincoln;                                           secular canons instead of monks, perhaps because the see was so large that                             finding enough monks problematic

1076                Ralph de Gael attacks Hoel II Duke of Brittany at Dol; Wm Conq aids Hoel; ends                                     in a treaty

                        Odo of Bayeux on trial for defrauding Crown and diocese of Canterbury

                        Siege of Dol to eject Juhel from his see. Ousted by “former adversaries Count                                           Eudo of Penthièvre and Count Geoffrey Grenonat; together with Ralph de                                        Gael, who had recently been expelled from England by King William.                                                 This was a carefully orchestrated two-prong attack against Juhel.” “Abbot                                      William and his brother John lord of Dol must at the very least have                                     collaborated in the scheme. Simultaneously with the occupation of Dol a                                              deputation of Breton clerics was dispatched to Rome with the objective of                                     asking the Pope to confirm Juhel’s deposition, and to inform him that the                                              citizens of Dol wished to elect Abbot William’s youngest brother Gilduin                                               as their archbishop.” “There must have been a serious falling out between                                      Juhel and the family of his most important vassals, the sons of Rivallon,                                         and it is not difficult to conjecture the cause of this. Abbot William had                                           become an influential and reformist church leader, who must have been                                         appalled that his own father had died an excommunicate. He doubtless had                                    been trying to persuade Juhel to accept papal authority, and it seems that                                            Juhel had blocked the foundation of the new abbey at Dol as a cell of St                                         Florent because he realized it would undermine his own authority. In an                                         attempt to circumvent Juhel, direct papal approval had been sought for the                                     foundation of the priory at least six months before the coup. As a                                                    churchman William had ready access to the three barons who took part in                                      the coup, and indeed Geoffrey Grenonat, Count of Rennes, was his                                               brother-in-law, being married to his sister Bertha. Ralph de Gael for his                                      part would have jumped at any oppportunity to annoy Juhel’s ally William                                     the Conqueror, who subsequently made strenuous efforts to have Juhel                                       reinstated both by direct military intervention and by appeal to the Pope.                                       Pope Gregory VII willingly acquiesced to Juhel’s disposition . . .” (Fox)

                        “The Life of Wihenoc the Knight. Of Juhel’s houehold it appears that only his                                            son-in-law Wihenoc stood beside him and shared his exile. His story is an                                             extraordinary one, and warrants recounting here because of his close                                                 association with the stewards of Dol. His first mention in the historical                                           record occurs before 31st July 1055 when as Wihenoc son of Caradoc of                                      La Boussac he witnessed the gift by his lord Robert de Vitré of the church                                           of Montreuil-sur-Pérouse to the abbey of St Serge at Angers. Wihenoc was                                    probably already married to Juhel’s daughter by this time, and was part of                                         the bishop’s pro-Norman inner circle. As such he would have been with                                                Rivallon of Dol in the events of 1064-65. After 1076 he was forced to                                            relinquish his extensive lands in the see of Dol given to him by Juhel                                              because those who failed to do so remained excommunicate. King                                                         William compensated him with a barony recently forfeited by the                                                   rebellious Roger son of William Fitz Osbern. Roger had become                                                     embroiled in the machinations of his brother-in-law, Ralph de Gael. Soon                                         after becoming lord of Monmouth castle Wihenoc, with his brother                                                Baderon, founded Monmouth Priory, endowing it with lands in the                                                             marches of Wales and Gloucestershire. Baderon gave lands from his                                              patrimony in Brittany at Epiniac, and the mortgaged lands of La Boussac.                                             Baderon was also a benefactor of St Georges Rennes, giving the village of                                                 Beren and a daughter to the abbey with the assent of his son William and                                       in the presence of Ralph de Fougéres his overlord, witnessed by Alan son                                               of Flaald. The Welsh church which the monks used while Monmouth                                                 Priory was being constructed fittingly bore a dedication to St Caradoc, the                                     name of the founders’ father. The religious imperative of Wihenoc’s                                           declining years was perhaps at least in part driven tby a desire to catch up                                               for the many years of invalid communion received from an                                                             excommunicate bishop. By 1083 he had become a monk of St Florent de                                       Saumur, leaving his English possessions to his nephew William fitz                                         Baderon. Wihenoc gave Monmouth Priory to St Florent de Saumur on his                                      admission as a monk, the instrument being confirmed by William son of                                        Baderon, by his tenant Main de La Boussac, and by Grient the old.                                                          Another witness of some interest was Raterius son of Wihenoc. King                                             William agreed to these donations in a charter signed at Salisbury and                                            witnessed by Count Alan Rufus, the most senior Breton noble in England                                            at that time, and a man who also had benefited hugely from the fall of                                                 Ralph de Gael. The choice of St Florent de Saumur was a natural one.                                            Wihenoc as one of the archbishop’s knights had served Rivallon of Dol.                                                Abbot William knew him well, understood his demons, and clearly held                                         him in high esteem, using Wihenoc as a travelling plenipotentiary of the                                        abbey. The first datable instance was in 1083, when he was sent to King                                               William to ask him to intervene in a dispute with the monks of Mont-St-                                         Michel. Abbot William’s brother, John of Dol, had granted land in Céaux                                       in Normandy on the coast east of the abbey to St Florent. Passing the                                      mount, Wihenoc and his colleague were able to persuade their fellow                                         Benedictines they were in error in laying claim to these lands, and they                                          signed a quitclaim on the feast of Stephen (26th Dec 1083).

                        “After this success Wihenoc was made responsible for resolving claims on lands                                       given to all three of the other English cells of St Florent, those at Sele in                                           Sussex, Andover in Hampshire, and Sporle in Norfolk. By this time he                                                 was a relatively old man. He visited the Abbot of Fécamp to reach an                                             agreement over territorial rights in Sussex, and c 1095-97 he visited Philip                           de Braose at Radnor and received for his pains confirmation of all of                                                 William de Braose’s gifts to Sele. He even persuaded Philip to make a gift                                     to Monmouth Priory. Philip de Braose later visited St Florent and made a                                     pledge to uphold his donations with a symbolic knife which was placed on                                 the priory altar. Wihenoc obtained a confirmatory charter for Andover                                           from King William Rufus which was signed before him in the New Forest,                                and witnessed by Count Alan Rufus. On the 18th March 1101 or 1102                                                 with Abbot William he visited Monmouth Priory for its dedication, and                                          before a great gathering of marcher lords William son of Baderon placed a                                    knife on the altar and attested to all the family donations to the monastery.                                          Present at the ceremony was Flaald son of Alan the steward. Twenty-five                                       years earlier Baderon had witnessed Alan the steward’s own gifts to St                                        Florent. Also there was the Breton tenant in chief, Mascoit Musard from                                       East Anglia, who later became of monk of Ely. Another charter in which                                       William son of Baderon gave land near Goodrich castle during the visit of                                              abbot William was also signed by Flaald son of Alan the steward.                                                           Wihenoc’s final task was to obtain a charter confirming Alan son of                                                Flaald’s foundation of Sporle Abbey.

                        “Abbot William took Wihenoc with him at the dedication of another cell of St                                           Florent, this time in Brittany, the Priory of the Magdalene of the bridge of                                              Dinan. It was founded by Abbot William’s kinsman Geoffrey, castellan of                                          Dinan. Wihenoc’s presence here at the dedication was required because of                                     the territorial rights of his son Alan were in question: a vineyard had been                                            donated in the town which was in the fee of Alan son of Wihenoc.                                                          Another witness was Richard son of Rivallon, nephew of Wihenoc the                                           Monk.” (Fox)

                        Wihenoc (Guihenoc), Lord of Monmouth founds a church in Monmouth Castle

                                    Welsh lord Caradog ap Gruffudd attends                              

                        Wihenoc’s brother Baderon had 4 children: William FitzBaderon (inherits                                                  lordship), Robert Payn FitzBaderon d.1095/1096, Ivo FitzBaderon who                                           founds church, a daughter who is a nun at Rennes-St Georges.

1076-1077       severe winter in Britain

1077                St. Alban’s Abbey built

1078                Old Sarum Cathedral, first one is underway

                        dry summer, with many ‘wild fires’ in many shires burnt down towns and                                                   strongholds’

1079    b          Peter Abelard

                        Winchester Cathedral begun

1080                Clement III, Antipope supported by Holy Roman Emperor

1080c  b          Adelard of Bath

1080s              White Tower, Tower of London built

                        Henry I possibly tutored by Bishop Osmund of Salisbury, scholar-administrator

1081    b          Louis, later Louis VI the Fat

            b          Abbot Suger

                        Ely Cathedral begun

                        Bury St Edmunds Abbey begun

                        Caradog ap Gruffydd invades Deheubarth; drives Rhys ap Twedwr to sanctuary in                                    St. David’s Cathedral

                        Rhys ap Twedwr allies with Gruffudd ap Cynan; at Battle of Mynydd Carn they                                        defeat and kill Caradog ap Gruffydd

                        Wm Conq visits Deheubarth on ostensible pilgrimage to St David’s; makes treaty                                      with Rhys ap Twedwr for which Rhys pays Wm 40 pounds/yr for                                                         Deheubarth

                        William the Conqueror reorganizes lordships in Wales

                        Alan, son of Brient, lord of Châteaubriant, owns Wihenoc’s former Breton lands

1082                Wihenoc retires to monastery; Coleville next perhaps because William                                           fitzBaderon is too young; nephew William fitzBaden succeeds him

                        end of Chronicon (history from creation of world) by Marianus Scotus, Irish                                             monk who wrote at abbeys of St. Martin in Cologne, Fulda, then Mainz

                        Odo of Bayeux imprisoned until death of Wm Conq; then sticks with Curthose

1083    d          Queen Matilda

1083c  m         Adela, dau of W & M, & Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois 

1084                Alan IV (Fergant) becomes Duke of Brittany: last Breton-speaking Duke

            m         Matilda, dau Robert d’Oyly and Ealdgyth and Miles Crispin

                        St Peter collegiate church in Hereford begun by Walter de Lacy

                        St Guthlac begun in Hereford Castle by Walter de Lacy

1084-96           Ralph de Gael attests a charter of Alan IV in favor of St Georges at Rennes

1085                St Pauls in London is started by Bishop Maurice

            d          Walter de Lacy falls off the scaffolding while inspecting progress at Saint                                      Guthlac’s Priory

                        Roger de Lacy inherits father’s property; builds castles; but, is part of rebellion                                          of 1088 against William Rufus and implicated in 1095 conspiracy against                                          William Rufus. Exiled

                        discussions in Gloucester that led to the Domesday Book; Bishop Remigius of                                          Dorchester involved; Domsday commissioner for Worcester part of                                              “Circuit V,” Worcester, Cheshire, Gloucestershire; Herefordshire,                                                   Shropshire, Staffordshire

before 1086     Lifris of Llancarfan writes Life of St Cadog; Lifris is son of Bishop Herewald of                                        Llandaff

1086                Henry knighted at Westminster May 24

                        Salisbury, William I received homage & fealty of major landholders, Aug 1st

                        Domesday Book assembled

                                    honours of Striguil, Caerleon, and Monmouth

                                    Welsh leaders listed with their lands

                        “Three groups of Bretons can be distinguished in Domesday Book. One was                                              settled mostly in the north and west of England and held land in direct or                                              indirect association with the honour of Richmond.”

                        “affinities of Penthiévre-Richmond in the North and East. The party of Alan of                                          Richmond included the lords of Wolverton in Buckinghamshire,                                                       descended from Baino Brito from Ercé-en-Lamée in Châteaubriant, who                                         was allied by marriage to the king’s kinsman William de Warenne.”           

                        Eudo of Penthiévre and son Geoffrey I Boterel of Lamballe stay in Brittany (keep                                                 nephew Conan, son of Eudo’s bro Alan III of Brittany, in wardship;                                            revolters with Alan III’s illegit son Geoffrey Boterel). Eudo’s sons Alan                                                 the Red, Alan the Black of Penthiévre, and 3 illegit bros and Alan the                                             Red’s foster-mother settle in Richmond. Eudo is son of Willliam Conq’s                                      aunt and Geoffrey duke of Brittany, so these guys were second cousins of                                             William.

                        “The second group was settled mainly in the south and west and was strongly                                            associated with the Count of Mortain and the West Normans. This group                                              came from the signories of Dol-Combour and Fougères in north-east                                                 Brittany.

                        “The third group was an anomaly because its leader, Ralph of Gael, was heir of                                         the staller of Edward the Confessor and an Englishwoman and, unlike the                                          other groups, had no special relationship with William.” (Keats-Rohan)           

                        Pope Victor III (Antipope Clement III)

            m         Constance, daughter of William & Matilda, & Alan IV of Brittany

                        Oxford has lost 57 % of recorded houses to waste, more than any town, including                                     York, except Ipswich. There may have been an unrecorded natural                                                  disaster. Or, the shift of the Norman interests to the Scottish border and                                                 Normandy, the general drop in trade, and the taxes and costs of the                                                 Norman presence may have temporarily caused a major decline. Norman                                            kings rarely visited Oxford.

1086c  b          William, son of Stephen Henry & Adela of Blois

1086-1087       ‘wet’ years: much famine/want & ‘pestilence’ over 2 years. 1086 was ‘a very                                               thundery year’ with much flooding and many people killed by lightning.         

1087    d          William the Conqueror — Henry at his deathbed at St Gervais outside Rouen

                        memory of death: his great men deserted him to look after their castles

                                    his servants stripped the corpse, stole his possessions, abandoned him

                                    a local knight not one bound to him by service made arrangements

                                    a local claimed that the burial plot was on his land — paid off

                                    tomb too small, intestines burst: stink

                                    moral: earthly honor means nothing; abandonment  

            R         King William II (William Rufus)

1088    b          Henry of Huntingdon, son of Nicholas (Norman, made archdeacon of Huntingdon                                     by Bishop Remigius of Lincoln) and English mother

                        Pope Urban II

                        Henry inherits 5,000 pounds in silver: 1.2 million silver pennies

                        Henry pays Robert Curthose 3,000 pounds for “the greater part of w. Normany”                                        and title of count; makes friends; goes to England but can’t get Rufus to                                              give him his inherited lands; is arrested on return to Normandy

            b          Theobald, son of Stephen Henry & Adela of Blois

1088-95           Bernard de Neufmarché conquers the Kingdom of Brycheiniog and creates the                                          Anglo-Norman lordship of Brecon. Participated in 1088 revolt against                                       Wm Rufus but wasn’t punished. Married Nest and Osbern Fitz Richard’s                                        daughter Agnes (Nest). Glasbury, Castell Dinas, Talgarth, Bronllys, Usk                                        Valley where he built Brecon and Honddu, Brecknock Priory. “Bernard                                         also extensively enfeoffed his followers with Welsh land. Further, Bernard                                   enfeoffed the sons of the king he had displaced in the less habitable land,                                       thereby creating a loyal Welsh aristocracy and extracting more out of his                                             land than the Normans otherwise knew how to do.” (wikipedia) By the                                     time he died (1125c), Bernard left Brecon a flourishing borough.

1089                Curthose says Henry has lost his comital lands, but Henry keeps running them                                           efficiently, strengthening defenses

                        Ralph de Gael attests a judgment between monks of Redon Abbey and chaplains                                       of the Dukes of Brittany

1090                Conan’s Leap, Nov 3rd, Henry defending Curthose in Rouen against Rufus

            b          Robert of Gloucester, illegit son Henry I, in Caen

            b          Theobald, later of Bec and Archbishop of Canterbury

            d          Constance, daughter of William & Matilda, wife of Alan IV, Duke of Brittany

            b          Alexander, later Bishop of Lincoln, maybe Anglo mom and Norman dad

            b          Bernard of Clairvaux

            b          Brian fitzCount, illegit of Alan IV Fergant Count of Brittany, brought up in H1                                         court

                        Welsh retaliate against Anglo-Norman colonizers. Kill Caerleon’s lord?

                        Vikings destroy St David’s, Wales; alter balance of church in Wales?

1091                Rufus & Curthose agree to divvy up Normandy, excluding Henry

                        Henry beseiged by bros at Mont Saint-Michel, disappears into France

                        Robert Bloet made chancellor to Rufus

            d          Robert d’Oyly, leaving dau Maud as heir of Wallingford and nephew Robert                                              d’Oyly as Lord Hocknorton and Lord of Oxford Castle.

                        Ricemarch becomes Bishop of St David’s after dad Sulien; Ricemarch writes Life                                      of St David and poetry

            Oct      violent ‘whirlwind’ (tornado/T8) 600+ houses destroyed, much damage to                                                  churches, and damage to the new Tower of London     

1090s  b          Henry I’s illegit daughter Matilda (mom Edith) m. Comte de Perche

            b          Henry I’s illegit son Richard of Lincoln (mom Ansfrida)

            b          Henry I’s illegit daughter Julianne (mom Ansfrida)

            b          Henry I’s illegit son Foulques (mom Ansfrida) became monk Abingdon Abbey

            b          Henry I’s illegit daughter Sibyl (see 1114)

1092                Henry is invited to take Domfront Castle & town by its castellan

                                    he promises good government after the vicious Robert de Belleme

                        Rufus starts supporting Henry as Henry takes more castles

                        Sarum Cathedral consecrated, then is heavily damaged by a storm

                        Hervey le Breton becomes Bishop of Bangor

            d          Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln

                        very wet year

1092c              1st archdeacons, bishops appoint. Lincoln 8: Lincoln, Huntingdon, Northampton,                                      Oxford, Buckingham, Bedford, Stow, Leicester

1092-1093       English rivers freeze so hard that horsemen and wagons can travel on them.                                               When thaw comes, drifting ice destroys bridges

1092/1095 b    Stephen, son of Stephen Henry & Adela of Blois, later King Stephen

1093                Durham Cathedral begun (takes 40 years)

            d          Remigius de Fécamp, Bishop of Lincon

                        Robert Bloet made Bishop of Lincoln: married, patron of Henry of Huntingdon,                                        educates Robert of Gloucester, Richard of Lincoln and other legit/illegit                                                children of aristocracy, and prepares his own clerks for higher office,                                      curial, and continued in an almost chancellor sort of role to the king,                                              signing writs

                                    “Prior to Bloet’s consecration, the Archbishop of York, Thomas of                                                  Bayeux, who had previously had a claim to supervise the see of Lincohn,                                            tried to prevent the Archbishop Anselm’s consecrating Bloet. Thomas                                               argued that the area of Lindsey, which was within the diocese of Lincoln,                                      really belonged to the           archdiocese of York. The medieval chronicler Hugh                                    the Chanter alleged that Bloet gave Rufus 3,000 pounds to intervene on                                               Bloet’s side when Thomas attempted to assert York’s claim to Lindsey, but                                    another medieval chronicler, Henry of Huntingdon, who knew Bloet well,                                     said the sum was 5,000 pounds. This payment secured Rufus’s support in                                       the dispute between York and Lincoln, which was settled in Lincoln’s                                            favour.” Bloet was one of the chief administrative officers of the kingdom                                     under William II, often associated with Ranulf Flambard, Urse d’Abetot,                                               and Haimo the dapifer. Continued to be a close advisor of Henry I.              

            b          Henry I’s illegit son Robert FitzEdith (mom Edith Forne) (see 1120, 1129)

                                    later married Matilda d’Avranches du Sap

                        William Rufus invades Wales, creates lordship of Abergavenny

                                    gives lordship of Cardiff and more to Robert Fitz Hamo (father of Mabel                                       who married Robert later Robert of Gloucester)

                        Ralph de Gael witnesses a suit bet abbots of Lonlay and St Florent

            d          King Rhys ap Twedwr killed at Battle of Brecon; dau Nest captured

1093-1109       Anselm is Archbishop of Canterbury — investiture controversy

1094                William Gifford is Chancellor

                        Robert Bloet made Bishop of Lincoln

1094c  b          Matilda, daughter of Stephen Henry & Adela of Blois

1094-1095       Henry in England from Christmas to spring

1095    b          Stephen of Blois, later King Stephen, grandson of Wm. I (mom Adela)

                        Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade

            b          William of Malmesbury, churchman and historian

                        amassed library at Malmesbury by traveling and both writing and copying works

            d          Robert of Mortain, 2nd Earl of Cornwall

1096    b          Henry, son of Stephen Henry & Adela of Blois

            b          Christina of Markyate

late 1090s        Hervey le Breton leaves Bangor, unable to control Welsh

1096    d          Roger de Lacy in exile; his English lands given to Pain fitzJohn, Josce de Dinan,                                       Miles of Gloucester — not immediately to Josce de Dinan

                                    Gilbert, son, only inherits Norman lands

                        Welsh reaction to Normans cutting across ancient native boundaries to make                                             castellanries at the honors of Abergavenny, Newport, and alien                                                  Benedictine house in Newport. Welsh areas were Gwent, Gwynllwg and                                        Ystradyw. After attack of 1096, “Nor more is heard of Gloucester Abbey’s                                     rights over St Gwynllyw for two generations, and a dean and canons were                                          in charge of the church still in the 1120s. Another effect may have been                                                 the disappearance of Thurstin fitz Rolf from Caerleon and his ultimate                                           replacement there and in his Somerset and Gloucersterhire estates by                                       Hamelin de Ballon’s brother, Winebald. Winebald had certainly been                                                 given Caerleon well before 1105, and it may be that he would have                                                suggested himself naturally to Rufus as a replacement for a defeated and                                              possibly slaughtered Thurstin.” (Crouch)

1096-99           First Crusade

                        Rufus pays Curthose 10,000 silver marks so Curthose can go on First Crusade

                                    Rufus will watch over Normandy while Curthose is gone

                        Bishop Odo goes with Curthose on Crusade; dies in Palermo

                                    Rufus gives Henry the Count of Odo’s former possessions

                        Stephen Henry of Blois goes with Curthose: as commander at siege of Antioch, he                                    deserts and runs away.

                        Robert, Count of Flanders (Curthose’s cousin)

                        Ralf de Gael, former Earl of Norfolk with wife Emma and son William (all die)

                        Godehilde of Tosni, 1st wife of Baldwin of Boulogne

1098    b          Hildegard von Bingen

            Dec      Crusaders sack Ma’arra an’Numan, conditions are so bad that 3 chroniclers report                                      crusaders cooking & eating flesh of enemy corpses

                        Fulcher of Chartres Historia Hierosolymitana (History of the expedition to                                                Jerusalem), begins his account in 1100-1102;

                        anonymous crusader under Bohemond Gesta Francorum et Aliorum                                                           Hierosolimitanorum (Deeds of the Franks and other pilgrims to                                                   Jerusalem), completed 1099-1101

                        Raymond d’Aguiliers Historia Francorum Qui Ceperunt Iherusalem (History of                                        the Franks who captured Jerusalem), completed 1102-1105    

                                    “cannibalism” not in Latin in 11thc; took from Greek

                                    cannibalism after Harrowing of the North; St Brice’s Day massacre; last                                                     resort in bad times when people are really starving

                        Robert Curthose and Robert of Flanders present at Ma’arra an’Numan

                        very wet year in Britain

1098-1101       Duke Alan IV of Brittany goes on crusade, leaving wife to govern

1099    b          William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Eleanor’s father

                        Pope Pascal II

                        Henry at new Winchester Palace on Pentecost May 29

                        Anselm at Council at Rome at Easter, Pascal against lay investiture

            Nov     tidal flood (or wind-driven storm surge) in Thames estuary & n Kent formed                                             Goodwin Sands; thousands of deaths

                        Robert of Arbrissel founds Fontevrault, Benedictine double monastery. Robert is                                      well-educated ascetic, priest, monk, hermit. Preaches on sin in a brothel                                         and, enraptured, the prostitutes walk away into the woods with him. One                                         house at Fontevrault is dedicated to Mary Magdalene.

11th c              active scriptoria at Llanbadarn Fawr, Llancarfan, Llanilltud Fawr, more

                                    scriptoria existed in clas churches at end of Celtic period

1100                Notes on the century

                        already in existence:

                                    Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: after 1120 out of Petersborough

                                    Deeds of Norman Dukes: cont’ by Orderic Vitalis, then Robert of Torigni

                                    Chronicon/Worcester Chronicle continues

                                    cathedrals had continuing chronicles & cartularies (lists of donors)


                        1100-1200 French literature dominates Western Europe

                        1100-1200 French/Norman/Anglo-Norman/Latin/vernacular spoken in England

                        1100-1250 Icelandic sagas

                        1100+ first recorded miracle play in England; mystery, quem queritis trope, Latin

                        1100+ earliest written mss of Mabinogi tales

                        1100  troubadors, OF jogleur: minstrel, joker, juggler, clown

                        late 1100s – Music: early polyphony, organum; folk music; court music

                        Romanesque architecture develops into Gothic style (Norman in England)


                        Cult of Mary new; cults continue

                        first writing down of oral myths and stories

                        King Arthur/Merlin stories so influential that they’re called the Matter of Britain

                        development of towns

                        wool trade, especially to Flanders, trade fairs

                        rising power of pope, canon law, church bureaucracy

                        development of sacrament of marriage

                        rise of Scholasticism, Bernard of Clairvaux

                        beginnings of students/masters/teacher centers, Abelard

                        Gregorian reform ultimately smothers Scholastic movement

                        historians suggesting natural reasons for events; not necessarily acts of God

                        first half of century historians write from beginning of time, adding further books

                        second half of century historians more interested in current events 

                        myths of people’s beginnings: Normans, Brit/Welsh, Breton

                        popularity of romance, rise of tournaments, courtly love, tales read in courts


                        stability — Rufus didn’t support Church or laws

                        primatial power of Canterbury over York — much bigger than investiture

                        Gregorian reform: investiture controversy Henry I & Pope Pascal (Anselm)

                        class system and feudalism

                        rise of primogeniture: families and wealth

                        Gwent: Chepstow & Monmouth & Caerleon in 1100s

                                    Welsh initially slow to resist Normans because had already dealt with                                                        Anglo-Saxons

                                    incoming Marcher lords settled before 1100, esp 1086-1100

                                    Normans couldn’t push as far west as Caerleon

                                    in the 1100s Welsh resisted English expansion

                                    Caerleon regained by Welsh early in the 1100s & kept until 1217

                                    castles focus of attacks, but towns (merchants) growing around castles

                                    Monmouth was the first Norman town planted in Wales

                                    Upper Gwent cantref ruled by a Welshman, overlord was Norman

                                    Domesday Book on Gwent: rents on honey, bread, ale, pigs, cows, hawks,                                     land, fisheries. Social categories: kings, stewards, a sheriff, villagers, half-                                    villagers, smallholders, male slaves, female slaves. Welshmen. Jocelyn the                               Breton held 5 carucates of land at Caerwent. 70-80 vills in  Gwent.

                        Welsh: sought prestige & land in Wales, parallel play with Normans

                                    allied with or resisted Normans according to their own aims

                        Marcher lords: owed allegiance & homage to king, were exempt from royal taxes

                                    held usually royal rights: create forests, markets, & boroughs w/o royal                                          permission. Law by local custom rather than royal court. Lordships were                                             compact, discrete territories.

                        Goronwy ap Tudur, Geoffrey’s age, is 2nd? 3rd? generation of an interpreter                                              family in Powys that dealt with Anglo-Saxons through Normans and the                                               12th century and beyond. Intermarried with Anglo-Norman/Anglo-Saxon                                      women, usually from the families of sheriffs along the border. Led                                                 Norman contingents into Wales. Occasionally stayed on either side of the                                        border to avoid ruling families’ fights. Given lands, sometimes from                                              Welsh/Norman kings, in recognition of their services.

            d          Death of Brittonic/Cumbric spoken in the kingdom of Strathclyde or Cumbria

                        Wales: “a sense of Welshness in something like the modern sense. From the                                              twelfth century, the Welsh were aware that they, along with the                                                  Cornishmen and the Bretons, were all Britons and that the Welsh language                                     was closely akin to Cornish and Breton, but the Cymry were now                                                   primarily the Welsh and Cymraeg was now the Welsh language.                                                         Previously, the Cymry of Cumbria and the Cymry of Wales had shared a                                              single British identity and conceived of themselves as sharing a single                                            language.” (T. Charles-Edwards)

                        Welsh poem “Hywel ap Goronwy” c 1100

                        Pa Gur poem, Llandaff, “What man is the gatekeeper?” Arthur reference

                        Vita of St Cadoc

                        “Dialogue of Arthur and the Eagle”, in Cornwall, Arthur seeking Christian                                                 instruction, eagle is his dead nephew

                        “Dialogue of Melwas and Gwenhwyfar” — King Melwas abducts and rapes                                                Gwenhwyfar

1100 c             Culhwch and Olwen written down? Much older poem: ancient framework with                             Arthur story inserted. Includes Gwenhwyfer, Cei, Bedwyr, Gwalchmei                                            (Gawain), Hoel, Caledfwlch (Excalibur), Rhongemiant (Arthur’s spear),                                         Wynebgwrthucher (Arthur’s shield), Carnwennan (Arthur’s knife), Geraint                                                 mentioned, Ehangwen (Arthur’s hall), Hengroen (Arthur’s horse), Cacamri                                            (Arthur’s servant), Bedwini (Bishop of Arthur’s court), Arthur’s family (Culhwch                               is a cousin; Arthur has sister, uncles, son), Gormant, son of Ricca, is Arthur’s                                 brother through his mother; his father was the chief elder of Cornwall. Arthur’s                              warriors at Camlan: Morfran son of Tegid, Sanddef Pryd Angel, and Cynwyl Sant                       (he was 1 of 3 men who escaped Camlan and was the last with Arthur. Arthur’s                             court is at Celli Wic in Cornwall.

                        Arthurian world of early Welsh poetry

                                    release of captives

                                    slaying of witches and giants

                                    hunting of oppressive beasts

                                    winning of precious Otherworld objects

                                    title Chief of the Kings of Britain

                                    deputized duties proof of operating court

                                    Arthur’s presence in any story was overpowering (B. Roberts)

                                    knights include Drust Iron Fist (Tristan) and Culfanawyt Prydeian (Essylt                                      Fair Hair’s father)

                                    Essylt Fair Hair & Essylt Slender Neck at Arthur’s Court


May     d          Richard, son of Robert Curthose, killed hunting in New Forest

Aug 2  d          King William II (William Rufus) killed hunting; Henry present

            R         King Henry I (reigns until death in 1135) 32 when crowned

                        Coronation Charter: “I establish a firm peace in all my kingdom, and I order that                          this peace shall henceforth be kept.” First written Coronation Charter

            b          Geoffrey of Monmouth

            b          Baderon of Monmouth, son of William fitzBaderon, Lord of Monmouth; older                                          sisters Iveta and Advenia old enough to sign deed of property gifts in 1101                              at dedication of Monmouth Church. A brother, Robert, was illegit.

                        (Antipope Theodoric)

                        Ely Cathedral nave built

                        Henry I invites Anselm home from exile

            m         Henry I & Matilda of Scotland

                        Michaelmas — Anselm refuses investiture/homage

                        Christmas — Great Council, future Louis VI of France present

                        Henry ridiculed by aristocrats, called Stagfoot, Godric and Godiva

                        more and wealthier barons were against him than for him

                        Curthose returned from Crusade with wife Sibylla and money

                        Church of St Peter’s rebuilt as Gloucester Cathedral by Abbot Serlo

            b          Gwenllian, dau of Gruffudd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd

            b          Nigel, nephew of Roger of Salisbury, brother/cousin to Alexander

            b          Mabel FitzHamon, daughter of Robert FitzHamon

                        Roger le Poer (and concubine Matilda?) brought from Caen by Henry I

            b          Robert of Cricklade, teacher, writer, and prior of St. Frideswide’s Priory

by now            Henry of Huntingdon (12 years old) lives in household of Bishop Robert Bloet of                                      Lincoln and is taught by Albinus of Angers

                        drought; excessive heat

1101                Henry I’s army meets Curthose’s at Alton; Curthose renounces English throne

            b          Heloise, later a scholar, Abelard’s lover and wife, nun, and abbess

                        (Antipope Adelbert)

                        Monmouth Church dedicated. Important people include Royal chaplain, Herve                              exiled bishop of Bangor

                        magister Theobald of Etampes lecturing in Oxford through 1117

            d          Hugh of Chester, bringing his young son & lands into royal control

                        Alan FitzFlaad witnesses documents at Henry I’s court; knight from Dol

                        Roger le Poer made Chancellor

1102                Henry uses law enforced with military might to rid England of the most                                                     untrustworthy barons — one result is cleaning out the independent                                                     marcher lords like the Montgomerys from the Welsh border

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Richard of Beaumais bishop of London

                        Henry gives Walter fitz Richard Netherwent and honor of Striguil

                        Henry gives Walter’s bro Baldwin lordship of Ystrad Tywi

                        Council of London = punishment for sodomy is excommunication 

            b          Matilda, daughter of Henry I & Matilda 

            b          William Clito, son of Curthose and wife Sibylla of Conversano

            d          Stephen Henry of Blois in Ramla      

                        Henry I & Alan fitz Flaad in New Forest witness issue connected to St Florent de                          Saumur (Anges, Anjou). Wihenoc, monk of St Florent, is present

                        Alan’s uncle Riwallon is a monk at St Florent. Tie to Monmouth & Dol.

            Sept     Roger switches Chancellor to Bshp of Salisbury, not consecrated — Anselm

1103    b          William Adelin (Atheling), son of Henry I & Queen Margaret

            m         illegit Julianne and Eustace de Pacy

            m         illegit Matilda to Rotrou count of Perche

            b          Henry I’s illegit son Henry (mom Nest) (Welsh princess captured 1193)

                        Mont St Michel – 3 bays in the nave collapse on praying monks

                        cold and wet conditions stress agriculture

            Aug     Great storm on St Lawrence’s Day does more damage than anyone can remember

1104                Crusaders capture Acre

            b          Waleran and Robert de Beaumont, twins, knights and lords

                        statement that Walter is Archdeacon at Oxford; not nec. at the same time, provost                                     of  St. George’s College

                        Hekla, volcano in Iceland, erupts; ‘perished crops’ in England 1105 & 1109

1104c  m         Nest ferch Rhys and Gerald fitz Walter

1105                Henry attacks Normandy; suddenly stops to meet Anselm

                        (Antipope Sylvester IV supported by Holy Roman Emperor)

                        Henry taxes priests with wives or concubines, then taxes all priests

            b          William FitzAlan, later Lord of Oswestry, Breton Marcher Lord, supported EMP

1106                investiture controversy settled; Anselm back to England

                        Henry invades Normandy; captures Curthose in battle at Tinchebray

                                    imprisons Curthose for rest of life

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Henry of Beaumont earl of Warwick

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Roger bishop of Salisbury

            b          Isabel, sister of Beaumont twins, in Normandy; (royal ward) later had illegit                                              daughter Elizabeth of Henry I; later m Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of                                                             Pembroke (their first child born 1130)  then m Herve de Montmorency,                                                Constable of Ireland

                        Robert, Count of Meulan, settles estates on twin sons Robert & Waleran

            d          latest date for Flaald Seneschal of Dol, dies in Monmouth

                        relics discovered of Ursula’s martyred virgins

            m         Bohemund, Crusader and daughter of Philip of France, Adela of Blois provisions

                        Order of Tiron established by Bernard of Tiron; strict Benedictine; gray monks;                                        Bernard becomes a priest at 19; spends years as a hermit, visiting Peter                                                l’Étoile and Vital of Sauvigny before living like a desert father. When his                                           former monks seek him, Bernard flees to the Isle of Chaussey and lives in                                      a cave until they convince him to return to mainland France. There he                                                attracts other hermits. He works with Robert Arbrissel. Tironsian houses                                             appear in Ireland and Scotland. In Wales Robert fitz Martin builds St                                             Dogmael’s, Pembrokeshire, near Cardigan at site of 600AD Celtic clas. In                                     1109 Bernard builds Abbey of Holy Trinity of Tiron in Perche.

1107                Henry returns to England to formalize Anselm’s position & invest vacancies

                        Theobald made Count of Blois (older brother William not suitable, Adela)

                        Henry, Adela’s youngest son, sent as oblate to Cluniac house

                        replacement of Anglo-Saxon Hereford Cathedral with Norman starts (’till 1115)

                        Baldric, abbot of Bourgueil, becomes Bishop of Dol

                        Hervey le Breton made abbot of Ely, then first Bishop of Ely

Aug                 Roger consecrated Bishop of Salisbury

                        Urban consecrated bishop of Llandaff, had been consecrated priest in Worcester

                                    by Anselm of Canterbury

1107-1110       Henry settles Flemings in Western Dyfed, Wales

1108                Llanthony Augustinian Priory founded by Hugh de Lacy

1108-1118       Quadripartitus — mix of Anglo-Saxon laws, treaties, H’s decrees, correspondence

1109    d          Anselm of Canterbury

                        Henry and Louis VI with armies negotiate across river

                        Henry I’s force ravages Cadwgan ap Bleddyn’s lands in Powys; valuables had                                            been moved; horse stud was there which apparently the Normans didn’t                                             take. Powys cobs were already being bred (they still are) and around 1100                                        a new bloodline (Spanish? Arabian?) is introduced through returning                                              crusaders. Gerald of Wales says lowland Powys stud-farms are known for                                           their horses that are consistently of “majestic proportions and                                                             incomparable speed.”

                        Abduction of Nest wife of Gerald fitz Walter by Owain ap Cadwgan

1109-1113       Henry’s intelligence/surveillance leads to seizures of property and restitution

1110    b          Robert of Torigni, later Abbot of Bec

                        Exchequer as a term used, abacus accounting, court of audit, pipe rolls

                        Constitutio domus regis Henry I lists stipends for his household staff

                        Henry takes Cardigan from Owain ap Cadwgan as punishment (inc Nest                                                    abduction); gives Cardigan to Gilbert fitz Richard of Clare

                        Theobald of Blois backs Henry & family interest over Louis VI or Fulk Anjou

            b          Walter FitzAlan, son of Alan FitzFlaald

            b          Ailred in Hexham, son of priest

            d          Nicholas archdeacon of Huntingdon

                        Henry of Huntingdon succeeds to father’s position

1110+  b          Henry I’s illegit son Renaud de Dunstanville (mother Sibyl Corbet; he was                                                 born in Dunstanville, Normandy)

            b          Henry I’s illegit daughter Rohese (mother Sibyl Corbet)

                        Geoffrey Gorham produces miracle play of St Katherine

1010-1111       long & hard winter; bad weather, both planted crops and trees severely affected

1110-1015       Orderic Vitalis starts Historia Ecclesiastica — shares as he writes

1111                Stephen knighted by Henry in August

1112                Stephen with Henry when he imprisons Robert of Belleme & retakes Alencon

                        Duke Alan IV of Brittany abdicates, son Conan III inherits

            m         illegit daughter Matilda & Conan III, Duke of Brittany

1112c m         illegit daughter Constance & Roscelin Vicomte de Beaumont and Maine

            d          Nigel d’Oilly, son Robert inherits Lord of Hock Norton

1113    b          Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou

                        Henry I visits Orderic’s abbey at Saint-Evroul

            Feb      Henry I & Louis VI agree on peace; Stephen & Theobald with him

                        Henry I makes Stephen Count of Mortain (he’s around 21)

                                    Stephen given honour of Eye in Suffolk and honour of Lancaster

                                    Stephen goes to England for intros; he & Theobald visit Crowland Abbey                                                  and former tutor Geoffrey of Orleans

                        Henry I arranges for William Adelin (10 yrs old) to marry Count Fulk’s daughter

            m         Matilda (Adela’s daughter) to Richard, Earl of Chester, vicomte of Avranches

            m         Gwenllion ferch Gruffydd to Gruffydd ap Rhys, prince of Deheubarth

                        Bishop Ranulf Flambard tries to rape Christina of Markyate

                        Breton monks on a funding visit for Laon Cathedral visit Cornwall, ask to see                                           Arthur sites, are shown Arthur’s chair and oven, argue with a man about      

                                    Arthur being still alive. (see William of Malmesbury 1125)

by this time     Alan Fitz Flaad is Sheriff of Shropshire

1113c              Henry gives Abergavenny to Brian fitz Count

1114    m         Matilda & Henry V of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor

            m         illegit daughter Sibyl & Alexander I of Scotland

                        Henry leads royal foray into Wales — the Welsh feared extermination as Rufus                                          intended “so that the name of Britons should nevermore be called to mind”

                        Ralph d’Escures for archbishop of Canterbury

                        Thurstan of Bayeaux for archbishop of York (ended up in fight)

                        first reference to “tournaments” by Count Baldwin III of Hainault

1114                one of the driest years on record; Oct 10, Thames at London so low that men and                                      boys wade across river

1114 or 1115   Great winds in October and a terrible storm on night of Nov 18 damages buildings                                    and trees

1114-1115       frost lasts 9 to 11 weeks; almost all English bridges damaged by ice; Ireland:                                             severe weather with frost and snow from 15th of kalends of January to the                                           15th of the kalends of March which makes “great havoc of birds, and                                                 cattle, and people; and from which arose great scarcity and want                                                     throughout all Ireland.”

1115                at Rouen Henry has his barons swear allegiance to William Adelin

                        King Louis gives full support to William Clito

                        Saint Bernard founds Abbey of Clairvaux

                        Walter the Archdeacon of Oxford signs charters for Abingdon Abbey

                        Westminster Court — election of Anglo-Norman Bernard to St. David’s

                                    Henry gives Welsh land to the curial bishop Bernard of St David’s

                        consecration of Abbey Church at St Albans — at Christmas Court

                        new Bishop Bernard tries to make St. David’s primatial see of Wales

            m         Sybil, dau of Walter de Lacy, sis of Gilbert, who has inherited lands (Ludlow)

                        and Pain FitzJohn

                        Lordship of Striguil given to Walter fitz Richard de Clare, had been forfeited by                            Roger de Breteil back in 1075

1115c  m         illegit daughter Mabel/Richilde & Guillaume III, Goet de Montmirail

                        French monk Guibert of Nogent writes that the schoolmasters of the his youth                                           could not compare in competence or number with those of the present day           

1115-1116       severe winter

1115-1118       Leges Henrici Primi – Henry’s laws integrated into legal treatise

1115-1119       Bishop Urban moves his see, renames his bishopric Llandaff,

                                    translates St. Dyfrig’s relics from Bardsey Island to Llandaff

1115-1120       Stephen in France, with Henry I and on Theobald’s behalf

1115-1125       Mont St Michel – Abbot Roger II rebuilds sections of Mont St Michel

1115-1143       Rahere holds prebend of Chamberlain Wood at St Paul’s. Cleric in H1 court,                                  exceptional minstrel, social climbing flatterer, from humble roots or extremely                           wealthy, “sewing pillows on all elbows,” ostentatious (signed with Geoffrey)

1116                Hildegard sent to Benedictine monastery with Jutta

                        Palm Sunday Great Council at Salisbury —

                                    Henry has English barons swear allegiance to William Adelin

                                    Henry decides for Canterbury; York archbishop Thurstan resigns

                        King Louis and others start pillaging edges of Normandy

1116-1118       heavy rains from August to Candlemas (Feb 2) ruined crops

1117                heavy rains nearly all year, disastrous for corn. Dec 1 violent weather, hail

1117+              In Cornwall, English landowner Osulf’s death blamed on Toki; Toki’s 6 French-                                        born sons are murdered near St Michael’s Mount by Anglo-Normans led                                           by native sheriff of Cornwall Frewin. King pursues murderers. Frewin lost                              his lands and perhaps his office. Fines for the sons’ murders still being                                            collected in Pipe Roll of 1130. National scandal. “The house of Corineus                                           will slay six brothers” Prophecies of Merlin             

1118                Henry’s enemy Amaury II de Monfort inherits county of Evreux

            d          Queen Matilda

            d          Robert count of Meulan

            b          Thomas Becket

                        Pope Gelasius II

                        (Antipope Gregory VIII)

                        Walter the Archdeacon of Oxford king’s justiciar at Winchester with Robert                                              Bloet, Bishop of Lincoln

                        in siege of Laigle, Henry almost killed when stone strikes his helmet

                        city of Alencon — the single major military defeat of Henry’s career

                                    precipitated by Stephen of Blois’s harsh treatment when in charge of town

                        Stephen had Alencon: lost it bec he disrespected burgesses; mistreated children                                         hostages of townspeople; people complained to Count of Anjou who                                       defeated Stephen, Theobald, and Henry I’s forces in 3 days; major setback

                        high taxes on people in Britain to pay for defense of Normandy

                        Henry affected by defections in Normandy of lords he’d trusted

                        Henry did have support in Normandy, “for although the magnates might shift                                            sides with the winds, knights of the familia regis did not.”

                        Abbot at St Florent de Saumur changes

                        Curthose’s chaplain Arnulf becomes Patriarch of Jerusalem

                        very great wind on St Thomas’s Day (Dec 21); damage to houses/trees

1118+              a treasurer-chamberlain in Henry’s household with lesser servants plots to                                                  assassinate him; Henry increases his guards & sleeps with sword handy

1119                Eustace of Breteuil and wife Julianna rebel against Henry; mutilate a hostage; as a                                    result their own daughters (hostages) are mutilated; Julianna tries to shoot                                            Henry her father with crossbow: Julianna jumps out of tower window, butt

                        Pope Callixtus II

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Walter fitz Richard

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Brian fitz Count

            m May William Adelin & Matilda daughter of Fulk of Anjou; Fulk then left on crusade   

May     d          Alan IV of Brittany who had become a monk previously

June     m         Robert de Caen and Mabel FitzHamon

            Aug     Battle of Bremule: Kings Henry & Louis with their armies bump into each other

                                    Henry saw & planned; Henry nearly killed; Louis ran away; Henry won

                        Louis tries to attack Chartres, but prelates display chemise of Virgin Mary

                        Pope Callixtus II consecrates Thurstan as bishop of York; Henry furious

            week+ Henry and Callixtus meet (first time British king met a pope since Cnut)   

                                    Callixtus impressed by Beaumont twins

                                    Henry refuses to free Robert Curthose

            m         illegit Alixe (Aline) & Mathieu de Montmorency,  later Constable of France

                                    maybe only arranged, then took place in 1126?

                        French knights Hugues de Payens and Godfrey de Saint-Omer, vets of 1st                                                  Crusade, propose Knights Templar Order

                        Pope Calixtus II sends pastoral letter on behalf of Bishop Urban of Llandaff to                                          nobles in Glamorgan and Gwent threatening excommunication if they                                     don’t give back lost property and pay taxes to Llandaff. William fitz                                               Baderon is on list.

                        Payn Fitz John is on the list with the honor of Llantilio and Grosmont, suggesting                                     a precursor of the lordship of the Three Castles (Grosmont, Skenfrith, and                                             White Castle)

1120                formal peace treaty between Louis and Henry, son William doing homage

                        Adela of Blois (Henry’s sister and Stephen’s mother) plays major role in peace                                           bet Louis & Henry; acceptance by Henry of Thurstan as bishop of York

                        Louis VI accepts homage of William Adelin as Henry’s heir

                        Adela retires to nunnery

            Nov     White Ship disaster

            d          William Adelin, heir of Henry I, drowned in White Ship wreck

            d          Matilda, Henry illegit, wife of Rotrou III,  Count of Perche,

            d          Richard of Lincoln, Henry illegit

            d          Richard d’Avranches, Stephen bro-in-law

            d          Lucia-Mahaut/Matilda, wife Richard d’Avranches, Henry niece, Stephen sis

            d          Geoffrey Ridel, Royal Justice, d’Avranches relation

            d          Gilbert d’Aigle, d’Avranches relation, brother-in-law of Count of Perche

            d          William Bigod, Henry’s steward

            d          Gisulf, Henry’s secretary

            d          Robert of Mauduit, Henry’s chamberlain

            d          Ralph the Red of Pont-Echanfray, military power for Henry

            d          Geoffrey, archdeacon of Hereford

            d          William, son of Roger Bishop of Coutances

                        Henry hit by arrow during successful campaign to calm Wales

            b          Louis, future King Louis VII of France

            b          John of Salisbury, also called Johannes Parvus

                        St. Lazare Autun Cathedral begun, completed 1146

            m         Edith Forne & Robert D’Oyly, lord of Hock Norton (see 1093, 1129)

                        Stephen and Theobald in Henry’s company through Christmas court, Councils

                        Monmouth charter mentions Geoffrey the scribe

                        Sarum Cathedral completed under Roger of Salisbury

                        Llandaff Cathedral started; St Dyfrig moved from Bardsey

                        David the Scot made Bishop of Bangor (see empty since late 1190s)

            d          Alan Fitz Flaald around this time

                        Bishop Urban begins reconstructing Llandaff church into a cathedral,

                                    creates dossier to show that Llandaff bishopric dated back to the 6th                                                           century, and to displace the bishoprics of St David’s and Hereford

                                    dossier = the Book of Llandaff, associated with Geoffrey & Caradoc

                                    from Council of Rheims (1119) to his death (1134) Urban litigates w/Pope

                                    result = more English/Welsh began taking issues directly to Pope

                        Book of Llandaff includes The Life of St. Teilo

                        hero Gereint in romance: composite of 5th century British general, a character in                                       Y Gododdin, an 8th century King of Domnonia, a 6th century King of                                        Cornwall, and a 6th century Cornish saint

                                    hero is grandson of Custennin of Cornwall, ancestor of Cornish saints                                            culted in Wales, and ancestor of southeastern Welsh dynasty of Morgan ap                                  Owain, d 980. Also, first cousin of King Arthur

1120c              possible reasons for Rahere’s conversion “… the example of Queen                                                             Matilda, who was herself always intent on good works. She had been                                       educated at the abbeys of Wilton and Romsey, and in the year 1108 had                                         founded the Augustinian monastery of Holy Trinity, Aldgate.” When H1                                       was away, sometimes for years, “the queen managed the affairs of the                                      court. ‘Yet lowliness in thee tempered thy great majesty,’ says Henry of                                          Huntingdon.” “The example of Rahere’s good bishop Richard de                                                     Belmeis…” “… the great catastrophe of the wreck of the White Ship, the                                            Blanche Nef…” “Newton relates a story … to the effect that when Rahere                                                 was on the Continent a great friend of his died and at funeral the dead man                                    was caused to rise and tell Rahere of the inexpressible torments he was                                     suffering in purgatory for not having performed sufficient works of                                             benevolence. Rahere was so affected that he resolved to devote his future                                       life and means to benevolence.” Rahere travels to Rome in repentance,                                               gets sick, “fearing that he had not yet given satisfaction to God for his                                      misdeeds . . . poured out his heart like water in the sight of God and all                                          breaking out into tears he vowed a vow that if, having obtained health, it                                            would be allowed him to return to his own country he would erect a                                     hospital for the restoration of poor men and, as far as he could, would                                            administer to the necessities of the poor gathered together in that place.”                                            “Whilst he was accomplishing his journey, on a certain night he saw a                                       vision, full of terror and sweetness.” “… he was borne on high by a certain                                     beast having four feet and two wings and that he was set by it in a very                                               high place. And when from such a height he bent down the glance of his                                        eyes to the depths, he discovered a horrible pit to be beneath him, the                                             terrible vision of which struck the beholder with both fear and horror at                                          once…” “… while he was thus fearful and crying aloud with fear, one was                                           beside him, bearing royal majesty in his countenance, of wonderful beauty                                     and imperial authority, and with his look fixed upon him spake good                                         words…” “Oh! man,” says he … “I am Bartholomew, an Apostle of Jesus                                              Christ who have come to help thee in thy straits and to unlock for thee the                                      secrets of the heavenly mystery; for thou shalt know that I …” “have                                               chosen a spot in a suburb of London at Smedfeld where in my name thou                                          shalt found a church.”… “Nor doubt at all with anxious mind concerning                                        the expenses of this building; merely apply diligence, mine it shall be to                                         provide the costs necessary for directing and completing the fabric of this                                         work.”… Rahere, as a pilgrim, would also have been lodged there [in                                              Rome, in the Trastevere/Jewish Quarter, near the church of S                                                          Bartolommeo housing the saint’s relics] and it would be reasonable to                                       assume that he visited” the shrine multiple times. Also, the bones of one of                                     St Bartholomew’s arms were already in Christ Church, Canterbury, bought                                    then given by Queen Emma (when m to King Cnut). When Rahere                                                           returned to London, he had to go to Henry I because Smithfield was the                                                king’s market, as it had been for Wm Conq and Edw Confessor. By 1174 it                                    was a horse market. The church was founded in March, 1123, and the                                        church was consecrated in 1126, 1127. St Bartholomew was always patron                          of Priory, hospital, and market. (BHO)

1120s-1130s                separate “Dialogue of Melwas and Gwenhwyfar” in Life of St Gildas by                                                     Caradog of Llancarfan.

                                    Gildas and Abbot of Glastonbury make peace between King Melwas, who                                                 has abducted and raped Gwenhwyfar, and King Arthur, who is besieging                                            Melwas’s Glastonbury.

                                    Caradog of Llancarfan also wrote a Life of St Cadog.

1121    Jan       Henry marries Adeliza; Stephen & Theobald present, and illegit Robert of Caen

                        Henry founds abbey at Reading

                        the question of succession

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Miles of Gloucester

                        Henry gives Welsh land to Robert of Caen

                        Fulk of Anjou returns from crusade

                                    Henry sends back Matilda, widow of William Adelin

                                    does not return dowry of castles, specifically Maine

                        Henry campaigns in Wales?

            Oct 18 violent north-east gale damages much in London

1121-22           political tension bet England and Scotland?

                        Henry names Robert de Caen as Earl of Gloucester

1121-26           Peter Abelard’s Sic et Non

1122    d          Ralph d’Escures archbishop of Canterbury

                        problems choosing and consecrating new archbishop

                                    whether Canterbury monks or bishops elect new archbishop

                                    monks angry that they’re given a shortlist (no monks on it)

                                    choose William of Corbeil

                                    Archbishop of York won’t say Canterbury is top primate

                                    new Canterbury bishop is consecrated by Bishop of London

                                    both archbishops York & Canterbury head to Lateran Council

            b          Eleanor of Aquitaine

                        Concordat of Worms, pope or emperor appointing bishops

                        St. Frideswide’s in Oxford reconsecrated as an Augustinian abbey

1123    d          Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln. “He had a sudden fit while out riding with King                          Henry and Roger of Salisbury, the Bishop of Salisbury, and collapsed in the king’s                    arms before dying shortly after without absolution, which combined with his style                         of living led many contemporaries to conclude he was condemned to Hell. His                              last words were, “Lord King, I am dying,” which he uttered right before                                                 collapsing into Henry’s arms. (wikipedia)     

                        Alexander of Blois made bishop of Lincoln, nephew of Roger of Salisbury

                        1st Lateran Council in Rome

                                    Callixtus grudgingly okays William of Corbeil as archbishop

                                    unimpressed by the Canterbury forgeries to prove itself tops, so decides to                                     send Papal Legate to England

            m         William Clito & Sibylla of Anjou (Fulk’s 2nd daughter)

            m         Fulk becomes 3rd King Jerusalem by marrying Melisande

                        Henry goes to Normandy to fight a war against Fulk, Amaury, Walleran, Louis

                                    slow siege warfare, lots of devastation

                                    unusually harsh winter in Britain and France

                                    high number of thieves hung

                                    silver coins filled with tin: Henry has Roger of Salisbury mutilate minters

                        Sporle Abbey Norfolk given to St Florent de Saumur by Alan FitzFlaad

                        William de Corbeil becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

1124                Henry’s familia regis captures rebel leaders at Bourgtheroulde/Rougemontier

                                    Henry directs that 3 who had been pledged to him be blinded (1 suicide)

                                    Waleran and two others are imprisoned for five years or more

                        Henry is more severe these days

            d          abbot of Bec William of Beaumont

                        Boso is elected new Abbot of Bec

                        Boso and Henry I become close friends

                        Henry gets William Clito and Sibylla’s marriage annulled (consanguinity)

                        Pope Honorius II

                        (Antipope Celestine II)

                        John of Crema is sent to England & Scotland as Papal Legate

                        Stephen founds Abbey of Furness in Lancaster; mother house in Savigny

                                    one moved monk, Ewan, was born in Avranches of English-speaking                                             parents, so could translate for the rest

                        Ailred moves to David I’s court, rising to echonomus steward, Master of the                                              Household

            d          Ralph I of Fougères, Ralph de Fougères Seigneur de Fougères

                        father was Main II de Fougères

                        wife was Avice de Clare, dau of Richard Lord of Clare and Rohais Giffard

                        through wife held land in Normandy by way of Robert of Mortain

                        sons were Henry de Clare and Robert

                        Domesday tenant-in-chief, but may never have visited England

April    d          Saint Caradoc, hermit and harpist in Wales

1125                William of Malmesbury: “This is the Arthur about whom the trifles of the Britons                                     rage even today; clearly he was a worthy man about whom genuine                                            histories, rather than the dreams of lying fables, ought to speak.” Wm of                                        Malmesbury says that the old popular songs still tell that he will someday                                      return. Bretons who visited Cornwall in 1113 looking for Arthur sites,                                        were shown Arthur’s chair and oven, argued with a man about Arthur                                             being still alive. Wm notes that this incident resembles the way the                                                 Bretons are accustomed to dispute with the French over King Arthur.                                        (Curley) William of Malmesbury mentions that Walwen’s (Gawain’s)                                             grave had been discovered in the time of William the Conqueror.

                        William of Malmesbury Deeds of English Kings 449-1120

                        John of Crema holds council at Westminster: general papal reform agenda

                        the two English archbishops travel with him to Rome

                                    final York/Canterbury solution: Canterbury receives ex officio papal                                              legateship for England

            d          Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, husband of Matilda (Henry I’s daughter) 

                        Eadmer, Life of Anselm

                        Walter the Archdeacon of Oxford king’s justiciar at Peterborough with Richard                                         Basset

            m         Stephen of Blois & Matilda of Boulogne — arranged by Henry I, huge estates

                                    Matilda is niece of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem

            Aug 10 Great flood on St Lawrence’s Day; many towns, bridges, and lowland crops                                              ruined

                        Cadwallon, son of Gruffydd ap Cynan, kills 3 of his maternal uncles, Goronwy,                                        Rhiddid, and Meilyr. “Exeter commentator on HRB sees this in Merlin’s                                       prophecy ‘Venedotia [North Wales] will be red with maternal blood.'”                                                 (Curley) (In 1132 Cadwallon is murdered by 2 of his nephews)

1126    d          Cecilia, daughter of William I & Matilda

                        Henry, Stephen bro, made Abbot of Glastonbury, richest monastery in England

                                    invites William of Malmesbury to research history

                        Nigel, nephew of Roger of Salisbury, made Treasurer of England; already                                                 working for treasury in Normandy

1127                Great Court at Westminster: all courtiers swear oaths to Matilda and any future                                         legitimate son

                                    secretly for Clito — Henry of Huntingdon, Roger of Salisbury, Alexander                                       of Lincoln

            m         William Clito & Jeanne de Montferrat, French queen’s half-sister

                        Charles of Flanders murdered by powerful Flemish industrial family

                                    Louis takes over and Flemings welcome William Clito as their count

                        Henry acts with diplomatic ingenuity to undermine Clito

            d          William IX, Duke of Aquitaine the Troubador, Eleanor’s grandfather

1128    m         Matilda fitzEmpress & Geoffrey of Anjou, son of Fulk of Anjou/Jerusalem

            d          William Clito while fighting to keep control of Flanders

                        Matilda, widow of William Adelin, takes vows at Fontevrault Abbey

                        Hugh of Payens, founder and Grand Master of the Knights of the Order of the                                           Temple in Jerusalem, visits England, recruitment & propaganda campaign

            Apr 22 severe winter; heavy snow on Easter Day

1129                first of Henry of Huntingdon’s 8 books on Historia Anglorum Geoffrey knew

                                    requested by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln

                                    ‘In those times Arthur the mighty warrior, general of the armies and chief                                       of the kings of Britain, was constantly victorious in his wars with the                                          Saxons. He was the commander in twelve battles, and gained twelve                                              victories. The first battle was fought near the mouth of the river which is                                        called Glenus. The second, third, fourth, and fifth battles were fought near                                             another river which the Britons called Duglas, in the country of Cinuis: the                               sixth on the river called Bassas. The seventh was fought in the forest of                                          Chelidon, which in British is called “Cat-coit-Celidon.” The eighth battle                                              against the barbarians was fought near the castle Guinnion, during which                                      Arthur bore the image of St. Mary, mother of God and always virgin, on                                        his shoulders, and by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the blessed                                               Mary his mother, the Saxons were routed the whole of that day, and many                                            of them perished with great slaughter. The ninth battle he fought at the city                                    Leogis, which in the British tongue is called ‘Kaerlion.’ The tenth he                                                fought on the bank of a river which we call Tractiheuroit; the eleventh on                                                a hill which is named Brevoin, where he routed the people we call                                                  Cathbregion. The twelfth was a hard-fought battle with the Saxons on                                            Mount Badon, in which 440 of the Britons fell by the swords of their                                          enemies in a single day, none of their host acting in concert, and Arthur                                         alone receiving succour from the Lord. These battles and battle-fields are                                       described by Gildas the historian, but in our times the places are unknown,                               the Providence of God, we consider, having so ordered it that popular                                            applause and flattery, and transitory glory, might be of no account. At this                                     period there were many wars, in which sometimes the Saxons, sometimes                                          the Britons, were victors; but the more the Saxons were defeated, the more                                     they recruited their forces by invitations sent to the people of all the                                               neighbouring countries.”           

                        Geoffrey Arthur witnesses first of 7 charters in Oxford (3 use Arthur)                    

                                    foundation charter for Oseney Abbey

                                    Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford signs too (5 charters w/ Geoffrey)

                                    Roger of Almary, precentor of Lincoln, signs too; service family

                        Edith D’Oilly convinces husband Robert d’Oilly to build St. Mary Church, an                                            Augustinian Priory, on Osney Island. Robert gives Oseney Priory the                                               southern end of the island and all of his churches.

                        Louis and Henry sign a treaty that lasts through the rest of Henry’s reign

                        Matilda fitzEmpress leaves Anjou for Henry’s court

                        Henry, Stephen’s bro, becomes Bishop of Winchester, keeps Glastonbury

                        Order of the Knights Templar supported by Church at Council of Troyes

                        Henry I uses the site where Ethelred the Unready held a witan with Saxon nobles                                      (before 1008)  to build a hunting lodge at Woodstock; in 1129 surrounds                                            by 7 miles of fence to hold in his menagerie of lions, leopards, camels, and                              a porcupine.

1130                Pope Innocent II

                        (Antipope Anacletus II)

                        Peter the Venerable, Abbot of Cluny visits England

                        Rowlstone Church, Payn FitzJohn, Lord of Ewyas, & wife Sybil de Lacy

                        Church of St George’s owns St Mary Magdalen’s in Oxford

1130c  m         Baderon fitzWilliam of Monmouth and Rohese, dau Gilbert Fitz Richard de Clare                         and Adeliza de Clermont. The wedding is held at Striguil Castle, stronghold of                               her bro Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare. Rohese is notable for her gifts to Monmouth                              Priory.

                        List made (for Pipe Roll?) of possessions of College of St George’s, Oxford                                               Castle: “the church of Mary Magdalene, Oxford with 3 hides in Walton                                         and the estate (terra) of Cutslow, the church and estate of Cowley, the                                                 church and estate of Stowe (Buckinghamshire), 2 hides in Morton                                                  (Buckinghamshire), 2 1/2 hides in Cassington, a hide in Sandford, 2 hides                                               in Arncot, a virgate in Hook Norton, and two-thirds of the tithe of the                                       demesne of all the manors of the two founders, numbering nearly seventy,                                     and scattered over Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire,                                                    Gloucestershire, and Northamptonshire. The number of canons is nowhere                                  mentioned, but as Oseney in later times was bound to maintain 5 chaplains                                    at St. George’s to pray for the souls of the founders, it is possible that this                                           was the original number of the canons. As was the case at Beverley, the                                       head canon was called prepositus, but unlike Beverley, the canons did not                                      live in common, but had their separate prebends. Walter, the                                                          archdeacon of Oxford (c1110-51), held the prebend of Walton, and was                                             provost in the year 1145, and probably long before. Robert de Chesney, as                                                 he tells us, held the prebend of Stowe before he became bishop of Lincoln.                                    Cowley with its church no doubt gave the title to another prebend.” “That                                              the canons were appointed by the representatives of the families of the two                                    founders is clear from a dispute between Oseney and Reginald of St.                                              Walery.” (After Walter the Archdeacon died in 1151.) BHO

                                    Cowley might have been in the neighborhood of what is now St Hilda’s                                          College

1130-40 b        Bernart de Ventadorn troubador

1131                Rouen: St Bernard of Clairvaux, Abbot Suger, Pope Innocent II visit Henry

                        last entry in Peterborough Chronicle/Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

                        during rough Channel crossing, Henry promises God that he will cancel Danegeld                                     for 7 years if he doesn’t lose his life; he keeps his promise

                        Geoffrey of Anjou sends for Matilda to return; she does

                        Christina of Markyate anchoress at St Albans; Alexander of Lincoln presides

1132                Henry busy with appointments, benefactions, and confirmations

            b          Rhys ap Gruffydd, son of Gwenllian and Gruffydd ap Rhys

1133    b          Henry fitzEmpress, future Henry II

                        magister Robert Pullen moves from Paris to Oxford to lecture on theology

                        Nigel made Bishop of Ely

                        Geoffrey begins writing his History and Prophecies of Merlin?

1133c              Henry of Huntingdon allows copies made and circulated of his history to 1129

1134    b          Geoffrey of Anjou, brother of Henry II

                        Henry crosses to Normandy; enjoys his grandsons

  late summer  Alexander of Lincoln in Normandy with Henry I; Henry I on campaign

                        Rouen: king hears case between Alexander & abbot of Peterborough

                        Ailred enters Rievaulx

                        Robert of Ketten and others translate Qu’ran in Spain under directions of Peter the                                    Venerable

1135                William of Malmesbury Miracles of the Virgin

                        Geoffrey of Monmouth Prophecies of Merlin dedicated to Alexander of Lincoln

                                    Vae tibi neustria “Woe to you Normandy” added after H1’s death

                        Henry of Huntington Historia Anglorum continuation Geoffrey knew

                        Orderic Vitalis may refer to Prophecies of Merlin as Merlini libellus. Orderic                                            interprets leo iusticiae as Henry I, “whom he speaks of in the present tense                             as awaiting his divinely ordained but uncertain destiny.” (Chibnall quoted                                     in Wright&Reeve)

                        Geoffrey of Anjou presses Henry I for border castles that had been part of                                                  Matilda’s dowry: maybe G&M wanted proof of succession intentions

                        Henry prowls around Normandy, checking faithfulness of counts, with Stephen

                        Flemings in Wales leave, fearing reprisals after Henry’s impeding death, Orderic

                        Richard, illegit son of Robert of Gloucester, made Bishop of Bayeux

                                    mom is Isabelle, d. of Samson, Bishop of Worcester and niece of Bishop                                        of Bayeux                  

Dec 1   d          Henry I suffers an attack and dies within a week

                                    by his side: Robert of Gloucester, William of Arenne, Rotrou of Mortagne,                                    Waleran of Meulan, Robert of Leicester

                        memory of William the Conqueror’s death: his lords left body; servants stole                                             belongings; Henry I had to pay for burial land

                        chroniclers bemoan disorders that break out, Hollister pp 474-476

1st wk Dec      Matilda takes castles: Argenton, Eximes, Domfront, & episcopal city of Sees

Dec 5, Thur     Stephen in England

Dec 8, Sun      Stephen in Southwark

2nd wk Dec     Stephen welcomed in London and Winchester

                                    Londoners claim right of election

11th or 12th    Stephen to Winchester, treasury chamberlain William de Pont de l’Arche keys

Dec 15, Su      Henry of Winchester prepares text for Stephen promising church reform

Dec 18             William Corbeil, Archbishop of Canterbury & papal legate, agrees to terms

Dec 21, Sa       Theobald of Blois to Lisieux; Normans don’t want Angevins invading

Dec 22, Su      Theobald and Robert of Gloucester chatting in Rouen when messenger announces                                     Stephen’s coronation  

Dec 22 R         King Stephen, Stephen of Blois, through his death in 1154                         

1136                Stephen is popular in this first year: agreements with Scots and France, large                                 treasury from Henry I, common counsel, accomplished courtier, smiled a lot, soft-                                        spoken, supported by top churchmen, England’s wealth was growing

Jan 5                Burial of Henry I at Reading Abbey  present: William Martel (royal steward),                                           Hugh Bigod (royal steward), Robert Fitz Richard (royal steward),

                                    Robert de Vere (royal constable since 1127), William de Pont de l’Arche                                        (chamberlain of the exchequer), Adelen (treasurer), Roger of Fecamp                                         (senior clerk), Miles of Gloucester (royal constable; 3rd generation),

                                    Payn Fitz John (servant of Henry I), Ingelram de Say (Lord of Clun in                                            Shropshire), Robert de Ferrers (Stephen’s kin, North Midlands)

                        Geoffrey of Anjou invades Normandy with little success    

Jan 1                South Wales revolts against Norman rule, winning Battle of Llwchwr

                        David I of Scotland invades England and takes Carlisle, Wark, Alnwick, Norham,                                     and Newcastle-Upon-Tyne

            d          Gwenllion, Deheubarth Welsh defeated by Maurice of Londres, Kidwelly Castle

Feb 5               King Stephen marches north with largest army in living memory

                        Treaty of Durham — Gives King Stephen control of Wark, Alnwick, Norham, and                                                 Newcastle, and David control of Carlisle, Cumberland, and Lancashire

March 22         Winchester Easter Court — magnificent, rituals, Queen crowned

                                    more higher Anglo-Norman clergy than had ever gathered

                                    Miles of Gloucester even gets hereditary grants (Henry I didn’t do                                                   hereditary)

                                    Robert of Gloucester conspicuously absent

Apr 15 d          Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, Norman lord of Ceredigion, ambushed and killed                                        by Morgan and Iorwerth ab Owain at Coed Grwyne near Abergavenny

                                    the two Welsh bros worked together well; shared lordship

                                    tensions which led to this could be the Norman hold on Usk Valley

                                    against advice, had gone into forest led by fiddler and singer — really?

April                Robert of Gloucester appears at Stephen’s traveling court (maybe at Brian Fitz                                           Count’s Wallingford) around time that Pope’s acknowledgement of                                                            kingship arrives

                        Stephen requires Robert of Gloucester to stay with him and his court

                        Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, dies

                        Hildegard elected abbess after Jutta dies

                        rumor that king is dead – False – Hugh Bigod occupies Norwich Castle

                        rumor that Roger of Salisbury is dead — Stephen rushes back from preparations                                         for traveling to Normandy — False

summer           rumor that Baldwin of Redvers captured Exeter Castle — True

                                    Stephen beseiges for 3 mos, besieged reduced to only wine

                                    Stephen lets surrendering garrison leave on honorable terms

                                    “suddenly they [advisors] changed him into another man.”

                                    “The king took the very worst advice.”

summer           “A castle called ‘Usk’ and Caerleon were seized by Morgan ab Owain, who                                                seems to have reclaimed all the land west of the river in Netherwent, and                                           seized also the Candos lordship in Llebenydd east of the Usk, where he                                                 became the acknowledged advocate of Goldcliff Priory. King Morgan                                            made further gains elsewhere. Although Newport remained as a fortress of                               Earl Robert of Gloucester, the earl conceded some areas of lowland                                                 Gwynllwg to Morgan as a grant in fee. A question remains as to how far                                        Morgan pressed eastward up the Severn estuary. There is evidence that his                           dynasty was still in control of the area around Undy and Salisbury as late                                          as the 1230’s. This was a region deep within the honor of Striguil, and                                            indicates that Morgan’s military conquests did perhaps get quite a long                                         way along the coast of Gwent before he was broeght to a halt by                                                             negotiation and (perhaps) a major enfeoffement like the one he obtained                                        from Earl Robert of Gloucester.” (Crouch)

                        Exceptionally dry summer

Sept                 Cardigan Castle the only castle still in Norman hands in Ceredigion

Oct                  Battle of Crug Mawr Normans defeated by Owain ap Gruffud and Cadwaladr ap                                       Gruffydd (sons of Gruffudd ap Cynan, king of Gwynedd) and Gruffydd ap                              Rhys of Deheubarth

                                    Normans had large heavy cavalry

                                    Welsh had longbow (and cavalry)

                                    Banc-y-Warren = Crug Mawr, modern A487, village of Penparc

                        South Wales rises in rebellion led by Owain ap Gruffud and Gruffydd ap Rhys.                                         Rebel gains included Carmarthen Castle. Brother of murdered lord (see                                        1136 ambush), Baldwin Fitz Gilbert de Clare and Lord Robert Fitz Harold                                     of Ewyas sent to quash rebellion, unsuccessful, Pain Fitz John slain.

                                    Stephen failed to support marcher lords (kept Robert of Glouc with him)

                        Walter FitzAlan enters service of David I, King of Scotland

by end of year Morgan and Iorwerth ab Owain hold Usk Valley, including Caerleon

1137                Tombelaine Island — Abbot Bernard du Bec of Mont St Michel builds abbey

                        Meilyr Brydydd begins Welsh praise poems

            d          Louis VI, King of France August 1

            R         Louis VII, King of France

                        Theobald (not Count) becomes Abbot of Bec

March              Stephen to Normandy, progressing through Robert of Gloucester’s lands

                                    Caen, Bayeux; Bishop of Bayeux is Robert of Gloucester’s illegit son

Apr 9   d          William X, Duke of Aquitaine (Eleanor’s dad)

Apr 11 Easter  Robert of Gloucester joins Stephen

                        Stephen meets up with his brothers at Rouen

                                    grants Theobald 2,000 pounds for life; payoff for stealing English throne? 

                                    meets with Louis VI; Eustace does homage to the French king

spring, early summer

                        Geoffrey of Anjou trying to break in to Caen

                        major lords are joining Stephen

                        then, things start going sour

                                    at Livarot, brawling among Flemings & Normans over a barrel of wine

                                    William of Ypres attempts to ambush Robert of Gloucester

                                    forewarned, Robert of Gloucester stays away from court

                                    Archbishop of Rouen mediates between the 2 men, but they only play                                            along

                                    lords start leaving, Stephen is furious

                        Stephen ends up making a peace agreement with Geoffrey of Anjou. Stephen                                            agrees to pay 2000 marks yearly if Geoffrey maintains peace on Norman                                             border.

July     m         Louis & Eleanor of Aquitaine; Theobald takes groom to meet bride

summer           hot — severe drought

            d          Gruffydd ap Cynan King of Kings of Wales (specifically Gwynedd)

            R         son Owain Gwynedd, King of Wales, rules through 1170    

                        “The situation in Gwent had stabilized remarkably quickly by 1137, as a result of                                      negotiation between the Welsh leaders and the Anglo-Norman magnates.                                          It is clear from Morgan’s behaviour that he was looking for a new                                                   relationship with the colonists, based on their acceptance of his recovery                                        of his dynastic heartland in the Usk valley. . .” “For their part, the Anglo-                                       Norman magnates in 1137 were looking over shoulders at the unravelling                                          political situation in England. Earl Robert of Gloucester left for Normandy                                    early in 1137 and did not return to England until September 1139.”                                      (Crouch)

by end of year Robert of Gloucester makes treaties with Morgan and Iorwerth ab Owain which                                        acknowledge their enlarged holdings, accepts their fealty, and accepts                                       their military support

1138                Geoffrey of Monmouth: History of the Kings of Britain dedicated to Robert of      

                                    Gloucester. Geoffrey creates a coherent narrative that includes many of                                          the traditions about Arthur (not the saints’ lives stories). Geoffrey centers                                               the court in southeastern Wales. He also adapts parts of it to the                                                      contemporary Norman world: Arthur’s court, known places, “chanson de                                        geste” hero, single combat, leading by personal example, spreads across                                               onto Continent. Geoffrey avoids wonder-tales. He connects Merlin with                                         Arthur although the two never meet. He writes in Latin.                  

                        Henry of Huntington Historia Anglorum continuation Geoffrey knew

                        Caradoc of Llancarfan already wrote Arthurian tale, reworked saints lives

                        Armagh Gospels, scribe Máel Brigte úa Máel Úanaig

Jan                   David I of Scotland raids Northumberland numerous times, taking Norham                                                Castle and putting Wark Castle to siege

Feb 2               Stephen in Northumberland Feast of the Purification, refuses Scots’ demand that                                       Henry, David’s son, be made earl of Northumberland

                                    report: David of Scots planned to ambush Stephen at Roxburgh

                                    Stephen avoids Roxburgh and destroys Scots’ lands

                                    rumors of disloyalty, so Stephen heads south

                                    makes Eustace Fitz John give up Bamburgh Castle and stay at court

Vigil of Easter, 4/2     Godstow Cartulary: Godstow priory set up with gifts including St                                                               George’s Collegiate Church at Oxford Castle

                        Present: Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford; King Stephen (he was giving the church                                       of St Giles at Walton); Queen Matilda; Theobald, Archbishop of                                                      Canterbury; Bishop of Sarum; Bishop of Worcester; Robert Chichester,                                                 Bishop of Exeter; Bishop of Walton; Bishop of Bath; Bishop of                                                      Constance.

                        Witnesses: Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford; Robert, Bishop of Exeter;                                                         Richard, Abbot of Eleemosyna (f.1121, Cisterician abbey bet Blois                                          & Chartres; mother house of Waverley & Tintern); Reginald,                                                          Abbot of Evesham; Walter, Abbot of Egenesham; Ralph of                                                             Monmouth; Magister Geoffrey Arthur; Robert, prior of Oxford;                                                  Robert capellanus; Ansket, presbiter; William Capellanus;                                                               Reginald, son of the Count?; William of Keisur; Humphrey, cleric;                                                 Andrew, cleric; Hugo de Keisur; William, son of Walter; Simon de                                       Gerard Molend; Nicholas Basset; Nigel del Broc; Ralph de Broc;                                                   William, son of Godfrey; William Luvel. [Why doesn’t it mention                                                  Alexander of Lincoln or members of the D’Oilly family?] [Ralph                                                          of Monmouth seems here to be signing as canon of St George’s;                                                         later, he is a canon of Lincoln]

                        Godstow’s background = “Dame Ediva, a resident at Winchester, widow of Sir                                          William Launcelene, had a vision, bidding her settle near Oxford until                                        God should send her a token ‘in what wise she should build a place’ to His                                     service. When for some time she had lived a holy life at Binsey, one night                                     a voice told her to rise, and go where a light from heaven touched the                                         ground, and there establish a nunnery for 24 ‘of the moost gentylwomen                                         that ye can find.’ Apparently she saw the light at Godstow, northward from                                    Binsey. Going to King Henry I she told him ‘what God in a vision her had                                       sent,’ and with his help a monastery was founded.” The church was                                                 dedicated in 1139, after Henry’s death. BHO

April 10           Robert Warelwast appointed to Bishop of Exeter; nephew of last bishop, educated                                     at Laon, not consecrated until December by papal legate Alberic bec                                      Canterbury vacant (signed with Geoffrey)

Easter, 4/10     court at Northampton, problems in Normandy, the North, and Wales

                        Stephen sends Waleran of Meulan & William of Ypres to Normandy

                        Geoffrey sends copy with dedication to Waleran? (W drops it at Bec?)

                        Archbishop Thurstan of York handling Scots’ gruesome behavior

                        public opinion blames EMPress for both Scots & Normandy problems

                        Wales – Marcher lords in power vacuum after Pain FitzJohn’s death

May?               Ascension Day – Stephen in Gloucester — lots of pomp and ceremony

                        Geoffrey sends presentation copy to Stephen & Robert?     

                        Stephen besieges Hereford Castle bec of family discord after Pain FitzJohn dies

June?                           siege takes 4-5 weeks, then Stephen lets surrendering garrison go

                        in Hereford or on way back to London — shortly after May 10th —

                                    Stephen gets messages from Robert of Gloucester that he is renouncing his                                    homage and fealty to Stephen and is joining the EMP side

                        Robert of Gloucester provisions Bristol

June 10            Battle of Clitheroe — David I’s nephew William Fitz Duncan defeats the English

                        First altercation in Civil War

                        Bath — Geoffrey Talbot & Gilbert de Lacy caught reconnoitering by                                                           Bishop’s men; Geoffrey caught; in parley with Bishop, knights break                                                 parley and coerce Bishop into freeing Geoffrey

                                    Stephen initially angry at Bishop

                        Shrewsbury — Stephen besieged, owner William Fitz Alan flees with wife and                                           children, leaving his wife’s uncle Arnulf de Hesdin in charge.

                                    Arnulf’s language enrages Stephen who lights fires & storms through gate

                                    Stephen hangs Arnulf and 93 of his men

                                    Shrewsbury raises Stephen’s popularity.

                        Bristol — Stephen besieges, but gives up to take Castle Cary & Harptree

                        Queen takes Dover Castle with a large force from the land side while her relatives                                     from Boulogne blockade the sea side

Aug 22            Battle of the Standard — David I is defeated by English army raised by                                                       Archbishop Thurstan of York

                                    thousands of Scots killed, few Anglo-Normans

                                    yet deal afterwards was good for Scots

Nov                 Church Council; Theobald of Bec becomes Archbishop of Canterbury

                        canons (rules) include that any married clergy would lose benefices

                        Henry of Winchester gets to be standing papal legate

                        announcement of upcoming council in Rome — EMP’s claims to be heard

Dec                  Legatine Council in London

                        Aelred accompanies Abbot of Rievaulx to Scottish border for negotiations for                                           Walter Espec, patron of Rievaulx, to surrender his castle at Wark to King                                          David I

                        Robert Warelwast elevated to Bishop of Exeter

1139                Gathering of king, churchmen, and barons at Godstow near Oxford

                                    charter between Walter the Archdeacon and Godstow Abbey adds title                                           magister to Geoffrey’s name; also signing, Ralph of Monmouth (canon                                           of Lincoln Cathedral), King Stephen, Robert Bishop of Exeter                                                        (jurisdiction over Cornwall) (see April 2, 1138)

                                    A second charter addressing the gift of Walton to Godstow Abbey                                                  (undated) has witnesses: William, Abbot of Eynsham; Robert, Prior of S.                                           Frideswith; Godfrey, the first of Eynsham; Master Geoffrey Arthur; Ralph                          of Monmouth; William the Chaplain; Nigel, priest; Jocelino, Clerk; Peter                                       del Bar, Lord (?) Ralph of Melvern, and many others. Robert Bishop of                                                Exeter commissions John of Cornwall to translate the Prophecies of                                                 Merlin from British to Latin in the early 1150s. Did Robert and Geoffrey                                       discuss them at this time?

late Jan            to Lateran Council in Rome

                                    Theobald, formerly of Bec, new archbishop needing pallium

                                    bishops Simon of Worcester, Roger of Chester, John of Rochester, Robert                                     of Exeter

                                    archdeacons Henry of Huntingdon and Arnul of Sees (=Arnulf de Lisieux                                      “the Polonius of his time.” “old-style, pre-Gregorian bishop” known for                                                 his letters. First known for pamphlet against antipope Anacletus II ((1131-                                                38)) which was very anti-Semitic bec of that antipope’s lineage. Active for                                     King Stephen through the 1130s. Accompanied Louis VII and Eleanor on                                               First Crusade. (

                        In Bec, Robert of Torigni shows Geoffrey’s History to Henry of Huntingdon

                                    Henry writes letter to Warin, possible revisions to Geoffrey which Henry                                       puts in his next version. Henry’s comments produce changes in the first                                             variant version of Geoffrey’s HRB.

                                    Note: pressures on Geoffrey to change his History. Also, changes made by                                    patrons and scribes to copies of Geoffrey’s History

                                    Robert of Torigni: b.c 1110; enters Bec in 1128; prior of Bec in 1149;                                            abbot of Mont Saint-Michel in 1154; pious monk, accomplished diplomat,                                              skilled organizer, and a great lover and collector of books. “Under Robert                                                de Torigni Mont Saint-Michel became a great center of learning with sixty                                    monks producing copious manuscripts and a library collection so vast it                                         was called the Cité des Livres (City of Books). Robert himself was called                                         “The Great Librarian of the Mont.” Robert’s principal interest was not so                                        much in man’s path to salvation, or in the moral lessons of history; it was                                       in what he called ‘cronography’ (organizing historical events in                                                          chronological order). He made no attempts to interpret history but wrote                                        plainly “without a trace of romance in his soul.” (wikipedia)

April                Second Lateran Council ending schism

                                    EMP’s representative gets nowhere in arguing her claim for throne

                        Second Treaty of Durham — Stephen cedes control of much of Northumbria to                                          David I’s son, Henry

Apr 9               Queen heads delegation to ratify treaty with Scots

                                    Henry, son of David, is now Earl of Northumberland

                                    northern barons can do homage to Henry; fealty to king

                                    Scots promise peace and hostages

                                    Henry comes south to marry Ada de Warenne

Easter              grand court, besiege a castle, rescue Henry from Simon of Senlis at tournament

                        Ranulf of Chester tries to entrap Henry on his return to Scotland

            m         Sybil, widow of Pain Fitz John, has held Ludlow Castle against Stephen since                                           1136. Stephen now marries her to Breton adventurer Josce de Dinan.

                                    Sybil was a dau of Hugh de Lacy

                                    Josce fortifies Ludlow against Stephen, supports Matilda

                                    when Ludlow Castle falls to Gilbert de Lacy (1150c), Josce pulls back to                                       Lambourn and his daughters marry two of his Breton knights: one son-in-                                            law goes to Robert of Gloucester and the other to Matilda

                        Fouke le Fitz Waryn (13th c?) tells of Sybil’s bro Gilbert’s attempts to get Ludlow                                                 Castle back from Josce de Dinan (garbled history)

June 24            in Oxford, Stephen orders arrest of Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, Alexander,                                                Bishop of Lincoln, and Nigel, Bishop of Ely

                                    for refusing to hand over their castles

                                    a brawl had started over lodging betw Bishop of Salisbury’s men and                                                          Earl Alan of Richmond and his men

                                    when bishops appear in Stephen’s court, they are manhandled, their                                                            loyalty is questioned, they are arrested at court, and they are                                                   deprived of property without a trial

                                    – the bishops surrender their castles

                                    – the bishops offer to give other satisfaction. Refused

                                    – Bishops arrested.

                                    – Nigel escapes and stupidly runs to one of Roger’s castles.

                                    – All the bishops castles surrender. Bishops released.

                                    – Roger a broken man

                                    – reasons: tense time, everyone is strengthening his castles. Roger and                                            his nephews have power and wealth but few friends

                                    – apparently Beaumont twins and Alan of Richmond had convinced                                                            Stephen of the bishops’ guilt

                        Henry of Winchester, papal legate, holds council

                                    Aubrey de Vere, experienced lawyer representing Stephen

                                    – brawl was initial incident that disturbed the peace

                                    – bishops held castles from the king, not owning themselves

                                    – they could appeal to Rome, but if they went to Rome, Stephen wouldn’t                                                   let them back into England

                        going forward, Stephen put royal garrisons into castles he’d taken from bishops

Sept 30            Matilda lands near Arundel, residence of Adeliza, widow of Henry I

                        Robert of Gloucester leaves; inadvertently meets Henry of Winchester; they part

                        Stephen besieges castle of Arundel, but then allows Matilda safe passage to leave                                      and join Robert of Gloucester

                        Stephen arranges for Adeliza to marry William d’Aubigney

                        Defections to EMP: Miles of Gloucester, Brian Fitz Count of Wallingford

                        Stephen raises siege castles against Wallingford; Miles of Gloucester gets                                                  Stephen’s garrison

Oct 7               Robert FitzHubert attacks castle at Malmesbury; Stephen arrives to attack it;                                             William of Ypres secures FitzHubert’s liberty with surrender

                                    – monks killed in church

                                    – Fitz Hubert’s tortures

Nov 7              Robert of Gloucester’s forces take Worcester

            d          Roger, Bishop of Salisbury

Dec 11             Stephen celebrates Christmas at Salisbury

                                    – takes treasure saying Roger had gained it as regnal agent

                                    – canons get confirmation of their possessions at a price of 2,000 pounds

                                    – receive it as charity & goodwill of king not as their rights

                                    – king overriding his earlier promises because of necessity of the times

                        Stephen at Reading

                                    – new abbots for Malmesbury & Abbotsbury

                        Pope Innocent II papal bull exempting Knights Templar from obedience to local                                       laws

                        Robert of Cricklade becomes Prior of St Frideswide’s; knows Hebrew; already has                                    been a teacher and then an Augustinian canon at Cirencester Abbey; wrote                                “On the Marriage of Jacob” in 1138; Pliny’s Natural History in the 1130s,                                     later dedicated to Henry II; Miracle of Faith 1164-68, dedicated to Robert                                     de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester; Homilies on Ezekial 1172; Life and                                               Miracles of St Thomas of Canterbury 1173-74; Life of St Frideswide

1140    d          John of Worcester, ending entries in Chronicon ex chronicis          

                        Nigel, Bishop of Ely, runs away as Stephen approaches Ely

                                    end of exchequer for more than a decade

                        rumors that Stephen is devaluing currency because royal treasury low

                        Stephen freely granting land and offices

                                    Henry I made 2 new earls in 35 years

                                    Stephen makes 7 new earls and 7 “counts” all in England

                                    moves balance of authority away from sheriffs to earls

                                    gives most to military service and close companions

                                    strategy: secure loyalty and contain Angevin advance

1140s  b          Bertrand de Born troubador

                        Kilpeck Church, 1040-1042

                        William of Malmesbury’s history covering1128-1142 Geoffrey knew

                        Robert of Gloucester lends Geoffrey’s History to Walter Espec of Helmesley who                                     gives it to Raul FitzGilbert whose wife Constance gives it to Gaimar to put                                into verse.

                        Geoffrey Gaimar’s L’Estoire des Engleis

                        Crown loses control over coinage. Robert of Gloucester, King David of Scotland,                                     and William Count of Aumale (Yorkshire) minted their own coins

1140-1148       Éon de l’Étoile, Breton prophet & messiah who steals from French monasteries &                                     castles, and gives to the poor. Renowned for his magic. He and his                                                    followers think Church too worldly.

Feb 6   d          Archbishop Thurstan of York, held North together, now license for disorder

Feb                  Stephen’s son Eustace betrothed to Louis VII’s sister

                                    rumor that cash taken from Salisbury Cathedral to pay for bride

                        historians and chronicles become lurid concerning castle warfare, suffering of the                                     poor, violence to the poor and to the clergy

                                    AngloSaxon Chronicle on castle building

                                    William of Malmesbury on brutalities of war

                                    worst offenders were mercenaries flocking to England

                                    ex. was Robert Fitz Hubert, Fleming related to William of Ypres

                        Stephen alienates church leaders when he refuses to accept their advice about the                                      next Archbishop because he prefers to keep the See for his family

                        Robert of Gloucester takes back some land taken by Stephen in 1139

                        Peace of Bath, set up by Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester, fails to settle                                             dispute between Stephen and the clergy when clergy require that they set                                            the terms for peace

            b          Walter Map, courtier and writer

Feb                  Stephen in and around Worcester, then returns to Oxford

Lent                 Stephen makes the Beaumont twins earls

March 26         Robert Fitz Hubert takes Devizes Castle from royal garrison. He refuses to do                                           business with EMP supporters. He is tricked. Then hung.

May 26            Whitsunday Stephen at Tower of London – court

                                    – Alexander of Lincoln probably afraid to come

                                    – Henry of Winchester probably nearby; as papal legate he had vetoed                                            Stephen’s appointment for Bishop of Salisbury (had already done the same                               for Malmesbury in 1140)

June                 Stephen in Norwich. Alexander of Lincoln attends, local earls

midsummer     Henry of Winchester arranges peace talks at Bath

                        EMP delegation                                              Stephen delegation

                        Robert, Earl of Gloucester                              Henry of Winchester

                        advisors                                                           Archbishop Theobald

                                                                                                Queen Matilda

                                    mutual recriminations

Sept                 Henry of Winchester, in France, speaks with Louis VII, Theobald of Blois, Abbot                                     Suger and other churchmen; returns with specific peace proposals

                        EMP = Yes                                                     Stephen = hedges, then NO

                        probably had to do with successions of sons

                        From this point royal court is atrophying and ceremonies are dying out

1140-1141       not sure which year. May 19. Welsburn, Warwickshire: ‘a very violent whirlwind                                      [tornado] sprang up, a hideous darkness extended from the earth to the sky                                     & the house of a priest was violently shaken, and all of his outbuildings                                                 were thrown down and broken to pieces.” 40+/- houses severely damaged,                                                 and hailstones the size of pigeons’ eggs fell, one of which kills a woman.

1141                Hildegard receives vision to start writing

                        Geoffrey de Lacy gets more bits of dad’s lands restored by Matilda; marcher lands                                    now or eventually

                        Perception that England is being invaded by Angevins

                        First Battle of Lincoln:

                        Ranulf Earl of Chester & William de Roumare take Stephen’s castle in Lincoln

                        – the bros already had Lincolnshire property Stephen had just given them

                        – castle was both royal and seigneurial; wives started capture

                        – Stephen marched up & besieged castle

                        – Ranulf contacts Robert of Gloucester who brings relief forces (Welsh kings)

                        – Purification of our Lady February 2nd

                        – portent for Stephen at Candlemas

Feb 2               Battle of Lincoln

                                    good speeches decrying each other


                                    initial cavalry charge decided for EMP

                                    taking of prisoners; Stephen is caught

                                    many northern nobles who were released

                        King imprisoned in Bristol — EMP hadn’t planned for this

                        William of Malmesbury – EMP was anti-mercantile, no municipal liberty

                                    this gave her a poor reputation with cities

Feb 17             EMP moves towards Henry of Winchester

March 2           negotiations concluded,

                        – Henry & Bernard of St Davids escort EMP into Winchester. Almost all bishops,                                     many nobles, chief magnates there when EMP given city & crown.

                        – Archbishop of Canterbury meets with Stephen first to be released from oaths

around now?   Geoffrey of Anjou sends envoys to Norman magnates

                                    commanding them to hand over their castles

                        Normans spurn Geoffrey: offer England & Normandy to Theobald of Blois

                        Theobald refuses to act

                        Robert d’Oilly joins EMP’s cause

                        EMP charter in which Henry of Oxford acquires two pieces of land formerly held                                     by the d’Oilly family witnessed by both Robert d’Oilly and Henry of                                             Oxford. Henry may have been a suppporter of EMP since 1135 or 1139.                                                 Henry, a burgess, was A-S and a bully in acquiring real estate, especially                                       bits held by his family prior to 1066. His heirs continued the tradition. He                                       gained St. John (formerly d’Ivry) manors/churches in Cowley. Geoffrey or                             another canon in St George’s held the Cowley prebend. He . . . “took                                              advantage of his position in Wallingford during the civil war to take over                                          the lands of others, including the king.” (Keats-Rohan) His son John                                        became bishop of Norwich

April 7             Henry of Winchester Council (major annual event)

                        Henry of Huntingdon continuation

            d?        Walter Archdeacon of Oxford

                        Line of continuity — England needs ruler because EMP didn’t show up promptly.                          Stephen stepped in but has been found wanting.

                        – Stephen hasn’t kept promises to church.

                        – Contrast to Henry I’s days.

                        – Can no longer ignore Henry I’s wishes.

                        – Gives EMP her authority, though it doesn’t give her power

                        Londoners invited

                        – their delegation wants Stephen restored; the delegation is excommunicated

                        EMP needs support

                        – chooses Oxford as base

                        – establishes court & network of communication

                        Invited to London, but does not endear herself to Londoners

                        – makes clear she would disinherit Stephen’s family

                        – she would strip away anything Stephen had granted

                        – she does not take counsel from her advisors

                        Queen Matilda starts attacking London suburbs

June 24            EMP is run out of London

                        – runs to Oxford, losing argument and losing territory

                        on her own, goes to Winchester to force Henry of W to support her

                                    he runs out the other side of the city

Aug 2              Henry of Winchester sets fire to city of Winchester

                                    siege runs 7 weeks, Rout of Winchester

                                    1st siege by EMP of the royal palace held by bishop’s men

                                    2nd siege by Queen Matilda? of the royal castle held by EMP

Sept 14            EMP breaks out on horseback, 1st miraculous escape, gets to Gloucester

                                    Robert of Gloucester is captured and held in Rochester Castle

                        negotiations are between Queen Matilda & Countess Mabel of Gloucester

All SS Day      King released, wife and son as security

                        Robert of Gloucester released, son as security

                        Stephen welcomed in London

                        Things back to stalemate of civil war

Dec 7               Legatine Council at Westminster to reestablish king; Stephen angry

                                    Henry of Winchester claims he was forced to give in to EMP’s clamor

                                    EMP’s delegates charge him with double-dealing

Christmas        Stephen & Matilda second coronation, this time at Canturbury w/Archbishop

                                    short of cash, queen mortgages property (never repaid)

                        situation at end of year: sense that whole political process is in disrepute,

                                    according to Orderic Vitalis, Louis of France, William of Malmesbury,                                          author of Gesta Stephani, William of Tournai, monk of Gloucester

                        Normandy: Geoffrey of Anjou controls central Normandy

                                    in 3 year process of taking over Normandy

                                    individuals come to him, such as either of Beaumont twins

1141-1142       very cold winter with snow

1142    d          Robert d’Oilly, buried at Eynsham Abbey; son Henry inherits

                        Peter Abelard uses the term scriptorium

spring              Stephen in York, no action

                        EMP = her followers want Geoffrey of Anjou to come to England

                        Geoffrey of Anjou staying until he controls Normandy; wants English help

                                    EMP followers, sure thing:

                                    go to Normandy, gain prestige in a successful campaign

                        Robert of Gloucester doesn’t want to desert EMP, takes hostage with him

                                    of Miles of Gloucester to preserve his English holdings

                                    with Geoffrey of Anjou takes 10 castles, inc Stephen’s Mortain

                                    rushes back when hears of EMP problems; brings 10-yr-old Henry

Oct/Nov          Stephen besieges EMP in Oxford from Oct up to almost Christmas

                                    Robert rushes in to save EMP

                        EMP escapes miraculously (2nd great escape) and goes to Devizes

                        Stephen takes Oxford Geoffrey of Monmouth probably was there

                        Henry FitzEmpress spends a year at Bristol, taught by Master Matthew

                        Geoffrey of Anjou takes Avranches, Coutance, and Cherbourg

            d          Peter Abelard

                        Geoffrey of Monmouth signs charter, Roger of Almary signs too

            d          Orderic Vitalis

                        St Mary’s Church, Bicknor

                        Aelred to Rome with Walter of London, Archdeacon of York, to tell Pope                                                 Innocent II they oppose the election of Stephen’s nephew as Archbishop of                                 York

            d          Richard, Bishop of Bayeux (illegit son of Robert of Gloucester)

1142-1143       Aelred is novice master at daughter house of Rievaulx at Revesby

1143                Stephen at legatine council in London, mid Lent

early summer Stephen in Lincolnshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset

                        – can’t pay for the arm of St Oswald, so remits monks’ debt

                        – Alexander of Lincoln present

June                 Stephen in Wiltshire, Henry of Winchester supplying troups

                        – from Wilton he plans to recapture Salisbury, then get EMP at Devizes

July 1              Battle of Wilton

                        Robert of Gloucester appears, sets fire to Wilton

                        – Stephen escapes when his steward, William Martel, creates a diversion

                        – several commanders captured

                        – some of king’s treasure & war machines captured

                        – looting in city

                        EMP now has secure bases and access to coast                                

            d          William of Malmesbury

Sept     d          Pope Innocent II, supported Stephen

Sept 26            Pope Celestine II Sept 26 1143 to March 8 1144, supports EMP

autumn                        fear of invasion from Normandy (definitely under Geoffrey of Anjou’s control)

Sept 29            Michaelmas court at St. Albans; Stephen arrests Geoffrey de Mandeville

                                    gives up his castles as price of release

                                    – William of Newburgh calls it revenge by the queen because Geoffrey de                                      Mandeville had held Constance, queen’s daughter-in-law in 1141

                                    – Gesta Stephani reports that Geoffrey of Mandeville was too rich

                                    – possibly small clique convinced Stephen that Mandeville supported EMP

                        Geoffrey’s reaction is to attack Stephen every way he can

                                    – pillage Cambridge, makes Ely his base

                        Stephen blames Nigel of Ely

                                    – charges him with inciting rebellion

                                    – Nigel tries to get to EMP

                                    – king’s men catch up to him, steal his belongings and treasures

                                    – Nigel returned to Ely then set off for Rome

Christmas Eve Miles of Gloucester dies

1144                perception — Geoffrey of Anjou supported by church, magnates, mercantile folks

                        consecration of Suger’s new east end of Abbey of St Denis

                        Henry Plantagenet returns to Anjou

mid Jan           Geoffrey of Anjou completes conquest of Normandy by taking Rouen

                        Castle holds out for 3 months

                                    Castle lord = William Earl Warenne

                                    besieging with Geoffrey = Waleran of Meulan

                                    Geoffrey’s guys = Count of Flanders, King of France, Rotrou of Perche

                        – Important to Geoffrey of Anjou to rule as inherited through wife and sons

                        Not through right of conquest

winter              Henry of Winchester loses papal legation; Stephen low on money & prestige

            d          Pope Celestine II (March 8)

March 9           Pope Lucius II

Easter              date of alleged murder of boy William used against Jews

May 24            Pope Lucius II writes British clergy decrying tenserie: protection money

                                    in response to Nigel of Ely’s trip to Rome

                                    tenserie used as castle-building increased; extra tax in a way

                                    lay lords over religious houses to build castles (and over peasantry)

                                    included taking a religious foundation’s knights

when?              Ranulf of Chester leads rebellion against Stephen

late summer    Geoffrey de Mandeville dies during attack on Burwell

Sept 29            Michaelmas Turgis of Avranches, royal confidante, guard over Walden Castle

                                    tries to turn custody of castle into lordship

                                    Stephen shows up and threatens to hang Turgis; Turgis loses position at                                         court and ends up as household knight of Earl Simon of Senlis

                        Hugh Bigod seems to have lost his lands

when?              Stephen orders earthwork built against castle; collapses, killing 80 men

                                    Stephen retreats

when?              Stephen captures castle at Winchcombe, Gloucestershire

                                    garrisons men at Malmesbury

                        EMPs men build castles and siege castles

Nov 28-Dec24 Siege of Edessa – Edessa’s fall signals call for second crusade


Feb 15             Pope Eugene III

                        papal legation – Imar of Tusculum – Stephen publicly reconciles with Nigel of Ely

                                    good coins again

                        Stephen tries to take Tetbury — withdraws

                        Robert of Gloucester tries to take Oxford

                        Stephen captures Faringdon — gains reports of great triumph

                        Pope Eugene III

                        Woburn Abbey founded

Dec 1               Papal Bull proclaiming second crusade; news of fall of Edessa brought first                                               reference to Prester John


Easter              St Bernard of Clairvaux preaches 2nd crusade at Vezelay, (built 1132, nave 1165)

                                    Louis VII & Eleanor, masses of people

                        Ranulf of Chester returns to Stephen’s side — good publicity

                        Siege of Wallingford – Stephen gives up, but he’s considered active

                        Robert of Gloucester’s son Philip switches to Stephen’s side

                        Alexander of Lincoln returns from Rome

                                    instrument written by Robert Pullen, native Englishman

                                    – lay types can’t take bishops’ castles, inc. after death of bishop

Aug 29            Ranulf Earl of Chester arrested at court — allegations of treachery

                                    he shows outraged innocence

                                    Stephen gets back the castle at Lincoln

            b          Gerald of Wales, historian

            b          William the Marshall

                        Robert de Chesney, prebend of Stowe, canon of chapel at St. George, Oxford                                            Castle, now Archdeacon of Leicester (signed with Geoffrey)

                                    nephew Gilbert Foliot, later bishop of Hereford and London

                                    bro William is major Oxfordshire landowner

                                    bro Reginald is abbot of Evesham Abbey

                                    sis Agnes m to Robert Foliot, steward to Earl of Huntingdon

                        Ralph Gubion made abbot of St Albans Abbey while continuing a clerk of                                                             Alexander of Lincoln and Alexander’s personal chaplain. Gubion had also                                               been Alexander’s treasurer. “While abbot, he was alleged to have abused                                                and tormented the prior of St Albans, Alcuin; eventually Alcuin                                                      transferred to Westminster Abbey to escape. Gubion appointed Robert de                                      Gorron, who was the nephew of Gubion’s predecessor Geoffrey de                                                         Gorham as abbot, as the new prior. Gubion also set the finances of the                                            abbey on a firm footing, and obtained favourable privilages for the abbey                                       from Pope Eugenius III. Gubion was noted as a great lover of books.                                       (wikipedia)

1147                Henry of Huntingdon Historia Anglorum continuation Geoffrey knew

                        Pope Eugenius III in Paris as Louis VII prepares for second crusade

early                Eustace, 16 or 17, knighted; bro William made a count

                                    Stephen’s attitude changes toward some courtiers

                                    his sons come first

                                    Queen very involved with sons’ futures (her inheritance)

                        another courtier miscontrues Stephen’s intentions and loses everything

April                Henry Plantagenet comes to England with unpaid mercenaries and no money

                                    14 years old

                                    wants to square off with Philip, Robert of Gloucester’s son, for betrayal

                                    can’t budge strongly held towns

                                    EMP has no money

                                    Robert of Gloucester refuses to help

                                    asks Stephen, who sends funds by return messenger

May 19            Crusaders leave from Dartmouth, led by Hervey de Glanvil, made up of “Franks”                                      from Flanders, Frisia, France, England, Scotland, Germany

                                    blown off course, land in Porto                                                         

May 29            Ascension Day, Henry FitzEmpress at Bec

July 1-Oct 25  Siege of Lisbon – Everyone routed from city

                                    Gilbert of Hastings becomes 1st bishop of Lisbon since 716

Oct 31 d          Robert of Gloucester

                        Ailred elected Abbot of Rievaulx

1147-48           Pope Eugenius reads Hildegard’s writing to synod at Trier

1148                Crusaders fail to take Damascus

Feb      d          Alexander of Lincoln

                        Robert de Chesney ordained as priest then consecrated as bishop of Lincoln

                                    his family supports Stephen, but his nephew Gilbert Foliot (Abbot of                                                          Gloucester Abbey during Anarchy; then bishop of Hereford; then                                                         Bishop of London) is relative of Miles of Gloucester

                                    ecclesiastical & landowning family: bros inc Abbot of Evesham & bros                                                     William are aristocratic types; William is Stephen’s top leader at                                                             Battle of Wallingford.

                                    Robert holds prebend of Stowe; was canon at College of St George’s,                                                         Oxford Castle before being made Bishop of Lincoln

                                    bro William administers Robert d’Oyly’s holdings after 1141 when Robert                                     d’Oyley switches to Matilda’s side; William does well out of Henry II                                         going forward

                                    1142-48 William de Chesney takes so much from places, he even forces                                                    his nephew Glbert Foliot’s Gloucester Abbey to pay him. Gilbert                                                           writes back, “Which of God’s poor around you have you not                                                             harmed?”

                        David Fitzgerald consecrated as Bishop of St David’s at the same time as Robert                                       of Chesney is raised to Bishop of Lincoln. David Fitzgerald is son of                                               Gerald of Windsor and Nest dau of Ryhs ap Tewdwr

                        John of Salisbury secretary to Theobald of Bec

                        Stephen’s court meets to decide who will go to Council at Rheims

                                    bishops: Roger of Hereford, Hilary of Chichester, William of Norwich

                                    clerks: John of Salisbury, Roger of Pont l’Eveque, Thomas Becket

                        Archbishop Theobald decides late, defies Stephen, leaves

                                    returns with note from pope: all bishops who failed to attend are under                                           penalty of suspension – only Archbishop of Canterbury can release them

                                    Henry of Winchester can only be released by pope

                        Stephen, furious, heads to Canterbury — Theobald runs to Normandy

                                    Queen and William of Ypres follow, ask Theo to stay in St Omer

                        Matilda forced to return to Normandy

            d          Sept 17            Conan III of Brittany dies; daughter Bertha inherits

                        Gesta Stephani — 1st book — first 12 years of Stephen’s reign

            d          Bernard Bishop of St David’s

1149                Henry d’Oilly (Robert & Edith’s son) and John de St John give Church of St.                                             George at Oxford Castle to Oseney Priory. Many valuable gifts come in.                                                Also, from 1149 on there is a legal battle bet Oseney and St Frideswith’s                                                 over who owns St Mary Magdalene’s. In 1200 it is finally decided in                                              Oseney’s favor. In John de St John’s charters of gives to Oseney Priory,                                                witnesses William the Poitevin, related to Henry of Oxford, A-S burgess                                                in Oxford

April 3             Easter, Henry Plantagenet at Devizes

May 22            Henry Plantagenet knighted at Carlisle Whit Sunday

                                    allies with Ranulf of Chester to attack York

                                    Stephen marches north – the attack doesn’t happen

                        Stephen scorches earth around Salisbury

1149-1150       severe winter; Thames freezes from December to March; cross river on foot,                                             horseback, and with loaded wagons

mid 12th c       Vita Euflami composed in Brittany; “Disembarking on the coast of Brittany,                                  Euflam meets Arthur and his men pursuing a dragon. Arthur fights the dragon all                                 day, but in vain, and when night falls, Euflam makes a spring gush forth so that                                     Arthur can quench his thirst. Euflam prays in frong of the dragon’s cave, and the                           dragon then climbs on to the rock Hirglas, coughs blood and ends up plunging                                   into the sea, where it expires. The memory of this battle remains rooted in                                             present-day popular traditions reflected in local place names around Plestin, in                              Trégor.” well is called Toull-Eflamm, Rock of Hirglas can be read as “Rock of the              Killing”. “Arthur in Earlier Breton Traditions” Hervé Le Bihan in Arthur in the                           Celtic Languages

            d          Death of Brittonic/Cumbric spoken in the kingdom of Strathclyde or Cumbria

1150                Geoffrey of Monmouth Vita Merlinidedicated to Robert of Lincoln

                                    lived in Llandaff before or while writing? When?

                                    includes material associated with Saint Kentigern (Mungo),

                                    traditional founder of St Asaph’s

                        Henry Plantagenet invested as Duke of Normandy

                                    does not ask Louis VIIs permission

                        “Certainly it was Henry of Oxford’s transfer of service to Brien fitzCount that                                            really made his fortune and allowed him to assume the prominence that                                      eventually led to the ‘governorship’ of Wallingford, for which service he                                        was well rewarded by Henry II. The statement of the Testa de Neville that                                      Henry of Oxford was a burgess of Wallingford is slightly problematic, but                                       may well be true. At all events, the borough of Wallingford supported the                                           Angevin cause as vigorously as did the knights of the honour, as the                                               charter of liberties demonstrates. The presence of feudal castles and feudal                               personnel in boroughs was a frequent cause of tension between burgess                                                 and barons. . .” “The unity of aim manifested by the borough and the                                              honour in the case of Wallingford probably owed a good deal to the                                          personality of Brien fitzCount, who built the mill at the South Gate for the                                           burgesses. The three officers of Wallingford addressed by Matilda and                                           Henry in 1150 can be divided into two groups, with Ansfrid fitz Ruald and                               William Boterel representing officials of the honour, and Henry of Oxford                                                representing the borough.” (Keats-Rohan)

summer           Stephen trashes Worcester, owned by Waleran de Meulan who hasn’t been in                                            England for a decade; Stephen doesn’t get a surrender

                        perception that Stephen is treating parts of his kingdom as enemy territory

Sept 17            Feast of Relics day scheduled to make a double feast: pilgrims 40 day indulgence

that year          Matilda, widow of William Adelin, becomes Abbess of Fontevraud Abbey

                        Walter FitzAlan becomes dapifer/steward to David I, King of Scotland; serves                                          kings Malcolm IV and William I; steward becomes hereditary position

                        Knights Templar begin letters of credit for pilgrims to Holy Land

                        Ralph Gubion hands over his duties as Abbot of St Albans due to illness.

                        Denis Pyramus writes Parthénopéus de Blois, a chivalric tale drawn from the                                             story of Cupid and Psyche. An Anglo-Norman, he was a Benedictine                                          monk of Bury St Edmunds Abbey.

1150 +/-          Gratian’s Decretum

                        demise of Old Welsh

                        demise of conventions for Insular letter forms                      

                        Robert Bishop of Exeter commissions John of Cornwall to translate Merlin’s                                             prophecies from British language into Latin

                        written Latin sources linking Lailoken with Saint Kentigern have reached Wales                                       from the north                        

1150-60           Baderon of Monmouth charter in which he trades land in Hodenoc (Hadnock) that                                    his father had given Monmouth Priory for 3 forges in Monmouth worth                                      60s annually. His sons Gilbert and James have given permission and Prior                                        Robert is his nephew. Witnesses: Prior Robert; Mauricio; William                                                  celerario. Clergy: Guidone capellano; magistro Roger; Gilbertsecretario;                                             Patrick clerico; Geoffrey scriba. Laity: Gilbert son of Lord Baderon;                                             James his brother; Seisello, son of Dunwall; Robert the abbot; William son                                    of Robert; Robert of Albemare; Walter Marmium; William de Mareis                                      dapifer.

1025 -1150      range for Cotton MS Vespasian A XIV (British Library)

                                    Vita Sanctorum Wallensium, Lives of Welsh Saints section possibly                                              collected/copied in Monmouth

1150-1200       range for Marie de France’s writing: King Arthur in Lanval, Chevrefoil

1150-1330       Brut y Tywysogion written at Strata Florida in Latin (existing ms is in Welsh)

1151                Geoffrey Bishop (elect) witnesses last 2 charters in Oxford area; Robert of                                    Lincoln and Walter the Archdeacon also sign one of the charters; Ralph of                           Monmouth signs too

Jan 13  d          Abbot Suger

mid Lent         Council in London, Archbishop Theobald now papal legate

                                    churches free from tenserie except what’s owed to king

                                    intends to free church from local lords

                        Pope denies latest request to crown Eustace in father’s lifetime

                                    – not English custom

                                    – church had been “burned” before

                                    – precedent in past denials

summer           Stephen returns to Worcester but is tricked by Robert of Leicester, Waleran’s twin

                        Magnates saw multiple obligations

                                    – ties of friendship

                                    – ties of family

                                    – ties of neighborhood

                                    – ties of lordship

                                    neighbor magnates make de-militarized zones

Aug                 Eustace and Louis VII square off  against Henry Plantagenet and Geoffrey of                                            Anjou in Arques, Torigni-sur-Vire

                                    ends in definition & homage

                                    Matilda, Geoffrey, and Henry make peace with Louis VII of France, in                                                      return for lands in the Vexin

                        Henry assembles Norman magnates to leave for England – doesn’t

Sept 14 d         Geoffrey of Anjou dies. Henry Plantagenet, 18, is count of Anjou and Duke of                                          Normandy                  

            d          Walter the Archdeacon of Oxford

1152                Hildegard founds abbey of St. Rupert at Bingen

Jan 10  d          Theobald of Blois

Feb 16             Geoffrey of Monmouth ordained priest at Westminster and consecrated                                          bishop of Saint Asaph at Lambeth by Archbishop Theobald

Lent                 divorce of Eleanor & Louis VII

                        Reginald Earl of Cornwall to Normandy to get Henry Plantagenet to England

                        Henry assembles Norman magnates to leave for England – doesn’t

                                    same day that Stephen imprisons churchmen

Easter              Eustace as heir – vows from many nobles

                        Archbishop and bishops refuse to anoint him

                                    Stephen imprisons them in room

                                    Archbishop Theobald escapes, pursued, to Flanders

May 3  d          Queen Matilda, Eustace’s best advocate

May 18 m        Henry FitzEmpress & Eleanor of Aquitaine

                                    Louis VII, Eustace, and others line up against Henry

                                    Torigni: “nearly all of the Normans now thought the Duke Henry would                                         rapidly lose all his possessions.”

                        Hope for Stephen and Eustace

            b          Geoffrey, illegit son of Henry FitzEmpress

June 12 d         Henry Earl of Northumberland (heir of King David)

                        Ralph de Diceto becomes Archdeacon of Middlesex; has master of arts; favored                                        by Gilbert Foliot and Arnulf de Lisieux; wrote history

            d          Adelard of Bath; natural philosopher, original works, translations of Arabic and                                        Greek scientific works of astrology, astronomy, philosophy, mathematics                                            from Arabic to Latin. Studied in Tours and Laon (leaving no later than                                                 1109), and then travelling to Southern Italy and Sicily. Travelled through                                       the lands of the Crusades: Greece, West Asia, Sicily Spain, Tarsus,                                      Antioch, and possibly Palestine. Returned to the Benedictine monastery at                                             Bath Cathedral by 1126. Dialogues he wrote inc Questiones Naturales,                                          Questions on Natural Science, 1107-33

1152c              Adelard of Bath uses the term scriptoria

1153                “Henry of Oxford was sheriff of Berkshire from 1153 until 1155.” “Henry’s                                               shrievalty was not, however, without incident, for a dispute is recorded                                     during which one Simon fitz Thurstin the Despencer accused Henry of                                                 Oxford of bullying as a sheriff: an accusation it is all too easy to credit,                                          given the inferences one can draw from his property dealings.” (Keats-                                              Rohan)

            6 Jan    Epiphany – Duke Henry of Normandy arrives in England

                        face off at Malmesbury = equal number of  earls supporting them

                        terrible weather — deaths of men and horses

                        doesn’t want fight — wants settlement

April 9             Henry to Stockbridge – meets with Archbishop of Canterbury, bishops of                                       Winchester, Salisbury, Bath, and Chichester

                        amount paid and rights to castle at Devizes (church wants it back)

                        – deal at Devizes: two ways, depending on if Henry becomes king w/in 3 yrs

early spring     Henry in Devizes, Bristol, Gloucester

spring              Robert, Earl of Leicester has completely moved to Henry’s side; statesman

                        Earl Simon of Senlis has switched allegiances, too

                        – Henry can now deliver lands in Normandy

                        – Henry requires judicial process before some grants could take effect        

                        – Henry is accessible

                        – Henry looks back to grandfather’s reign

                                    refuses to recognize lands or offices Stephen had given

May 24 d         David I, King of Scots

                        King Malcolm IV of Scotland, 12 years old, succeeds grandfather

Whitsun          Henry moving forward, holds court at Leicester

July 8  d          Pope Eugene III

                        Pope Anastasius IV

July                 Henry and Stephen close to each other, parallel besieging

                        Seige of Wallingford Castle: Stephen besieges it, then Henry encircles besiegers.                                      Church leaders want peace

                        – truce declared, foretaste of peace treaty

                        Necessity for peace finally accepted by Stephen

                        Eustace feels betrayed — goes to his house in Cambridge

Aug 16/17       Eustace dies after plundering lands   

            b          William, son of Henry and Eleanor

Aug 20 d         Bernard of Clairvaux

            d          Simon of Senlis

                        Henry moving on

                        Stephen continues half-heartedly

Aug 31            Henry takes Stamford

Sept/Oct          Archbishop Theobald of Canterbury & Henry of Winchester — peace deals

Oct 14 d          Henry Murdac, Archbishop of York

                        new Pope Anastasius IV restores William FitzHerbert to Archbishop of York

                        – Hugh de Puiset to Bishop of Durham

Nov 6-11         Treaty of Winchester formalizes Peace of Wallingford. Anarchy ends by                                        granting Stephen the throne for life with succession of Henry.                                                            Geoffrey signs as Galfrido de S. Asaph episcopo

                                    38 signatures

                                    Henry as Stephen’s liege man

                                    homage by Stephen’s son William to Henry

                                    Stephen & Henry exchange kiss of peace; not a dry eye in the house

                        The Peace – Pax

                        Stephen & Henry progress to London

                        – edict sent out that all castles built in the time of sedition be destroyed; eject hired                                    foreign knights; land returned to those who had it in Henry I’s time

                        – Apparent assassination plot by Flemings; Rumors that Stephen’s son was aware                                      of it; William leaves England

Dec 16             Ranulf of Chester dies, big destabilizer

1154                “The king of Scotland died, and almost all the chief men of the whole of                                                    England.” (the chronicle: 1133-86, in Annales Cestrienses Chronicle of the                             Abbey of S. Werburg, At Chester, BHO)

            March  Henry returns to England

                        Stephen based in London, takes progress through kingdom

                        “Death had totally transformed the landscape of power”

June 8  d          Archbishop of York, William FitzHerbert (did subdeacon Osbert poison him?)

Michaelmas    Stephen holds Council to choose new Archbishop of York

                                    Roger of Pont l’Eveque chosen (southern choice)

Oct 10             Stephen at Westminster for Roger of Pont l’Eveque’s consecration

Oct 25 d         King Stephen

            R         King Henry II to his death in 1189

Dec 4               Pope Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear) only English pope

                        Anglo Saxon Chronicle (Peterborough) ends

                        Robert of Torigni becomes Abbot of Mont St Michel, cite des livres, chronicler

                        Peter de Bermingham gains a charter of marketing rights from Henry II and                                               begins a market in the area known as the Bull Ring

                        Church and Priory of St Mary at Oseney became Oseney Abbey

                        Gesta Stephani — 2nd book — through end of Stephen’s reign

1155    d          Geoffrey of Monmouth

                        Wace Roman de Brut mentions Merlin

                        Thomas Becket becomes Chancellor

                        Pope grants Henry II right to rule Ireland

            b          Henry, son of Henry II & Eleanor, the Young King

                        Rhys ap Gruffydd becomes Prince of Deheubarth

June 18            Frederick Barbarossa becomes Holy Roman Emperor

                        William FitzAlan reinstated as Sheriff of Shropshire

1155    m         Rohese, dau of Baderon, Lord of Monmouth, and Rohese de Clare and Hugh de                                        Lacy, Lord of Meath, 1st Viceroy of Ireland, son of Gilbert de Lacy and                                              Agnes de Lacy. Rohese and Hugh de Lacy had a dau who married William                                   fitz Alan

                        copies made of last version of Henry of Huntingdon’s History

1155-1160       Thomas of Britain, Tristan, tied to Henry II’s court & Eleanor

                                    Beroul’s less courtly Tristan came later in the century

1156    d          Bertha Duchess of Brittany; son Conan IV has to fight stepfather to inherit

around now     Henry of Huntingdon last appears in documents

1157    b          Richard, son of Henry II & Eleanor, the Lionheart

1157-58           Henry II successful Welsh campaign

1158    b          Geoffrey, son of Henry II & Eleanor, later Duke of Brittany

                        because of an earthquake, Thames at London is waterless and is crossed dryshod

                        Geoffrey of Lacy gives his lands to his son Robert and joins the Knights Templar

                                    Becomes precentor of the Templars in the County of Tripoli

1159                John of Salisbury, Policraticus

                        Pope Alexander III

                        (Antipope Victor IV)

1160    m         Conan IV of Brittany and Margaret, princess of Scotland

1160-72           Chretien de Troyes in court of Marie de Champagne (Eleanor & Louis’ daughter)

1161    d          Theobald of Bec

1162                Thomas Becket made Archbishop of Canterbury

1163                Leonin 1163-1190 early polyphony, Notre Dame Paris

            d          Henry d’Oilly, Constable of England, buried at Oseney Abbey

                        Robert of Melun (1100-1167) made Bishop of Hereford. Had studied under Peter                                      Abelard before teaching in Paris and at Melun. Scholastic. Students inc                                      John of Salisbury, Roger of Worcester, William of Tyre, maybe Thomas                                        Becket. Strictly orthodox in his theological works.

1164    d          Heloise

                        Constitutions of Clarendon, church or state running trials

                        (Antipope Paschal III)

1164-1165       Nicholas de Sigillo has replaced Henry of Huntingdon as archdeacon of                                                     Huntingdon

1165    b          Philip II

1165-1210 c    Jean Bodel — from the Song of the Saxons

                                    Ne sont que III matières à nul homme atandant,
                                    De France et de Bretaigne, et de Rome la grant.
                                    “Not but with three matters no man should attend:
                                    Of France and of Britain, and of Rome the grand.”

1166    d          Robert de Chesney, Bishop of Lincoln

66-67   d          Aelred, Abbot of Rievaulx

1167                Amalric, King of Jerusalem, captures Cairo

1168                Arabs recapture Cairo

                        (Antipope Callixtus II)

1169                Saladin becomes vizier of Egypt

1170    d          Thomas Becket

                        Chretien de Troyes, Erec et Enide = French version of Geraint

                        Welsh/Breton Geraint probably written down around this time, but story beneath                                      the contemporary accoutrements is much older. Welch version clearly has                                           oral background specific to placement in Cardiff area.        

                        Henry the Young King crowned

1170s              Chretien de Troyes, Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart

                                    first mention of Camelot

                        Owain, Welsh version first written around the same time

1171                Henry II annexes Ireland

1172    d          Robert FitzEdith, Lord Okehampton

1174                Saladin as Sultan, conquers Syria

1175                William de Braose massacres local Welsh leaders at a feast at his castle at                                                 Abergavenny

1176    d          Matilda Empress

                        Chretien de Troyes, Cliges

                        first recorded Eisteddfod held at Cardigan, Wales (boards for judging poetry                                              existed from at least the early 1100s).

                        David Fitzgerald, Bishop of St David’s

1177                Baldwin IV of Jerusalem defeats Saladin

                        Chretien de Troyes 1177-81, Yvain?

1178                Hildegard put under interdict

1179                Grand Assize of Windsor, increase power of royal court

                        Saladin beseiges Tyre

                        (Antipope Innocent III)

            d          Hildegard von Bingen

1180    d          Louis VII       

            R         King Philip II

                        Saladin and Baldwin IV truce

            d          John of Salisbury

                        Perotin 1180-1225, early polyphony, Notre Dame Paris

1180-84           H. of Saltrey Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii

1181                Pope Lucius III

1182                Philip II banishes Jews from France

                        Notre Dame de Paris, apse and choir completed

1183    d          Henry the Young King

1184                choir of Canterbury Cathedral, William of Sens architect

            b          Eleanor, daughter of Geoffrey & Constance of Brittany

                        Council of Verona makes marriage a sacrament (in reaction to Cathars)

1185                Pope Urban III

                        Vita Kentigerni,  Jocelyn of Furness

1186    d          Geoffrey, II Duke of Brittany

1187                Saladin captures Jerusalem

                        Pope Gregory VIII

                        Pope Clement III

            b          Arthur I, son of Geoffrey & Constance of Brittany

1189    d          Henry II

            R         King Richard I (Lionheart)

1190    d          Frederick Barbarossa